|Criteria||i, ii, iv, v, vii|
|Designated||1988 (12th session)|
The Meteora (//; Greek: Μετέωρα, pronounced [meˈteora]) is a rock formation in central Greece hosting one of the largest and most precipitously built complexes of Eastern Orthodox monasteries, second in importance only to Mount Athos. The six (of an original twenty four) monasteries are built on immense natural pillars and hill-like rounded boulders that dominate the local area. It is located near the town of Kalabaka at the northwestern edge of the Plain of Thessaly near the Pineios river and Pindus Mountains.
Beside the Pindos Mountains, in the western region of Thessaly, these unique and enormous columns of rock rise precipitously from the ground. But their unusual form is not easy to explain geologically. They are not volcanic plugs of hard igneous rock typical elsewhere, but the rocks are composed of a mixture of sandstone and conglomerate.
The conglomerate was formed of deposits of stone, sand, and mud from streams flowing into a delta at the edge of a lake, over millions of years. About 60 million years ago during the Paleogene period a series of earth movements pushed the seabed upward, creating a high plateau and causing many vertical fault lines in the thick layer of sandstone. The huge rock pillars were then formed by weathering by water, wind, and extremes of temperature on the vertical faults. It is unusual that this conglomerate formation and type of weathering are confined to a relatively localised area within the surrounding mountain formation.
This type of rock formation and weathering process has happened in many other places locally and throughout the world, but what makes Meteora's appearance special is the uniformity of the sedimentary rock constituents deposited over millions of years leaving few signs of vertical layering, and the localised abrupt vertical weathering.
The cave of Theopetra is located 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from Kalambaka. Its uniqueness from an archeological perspective is that a single site contains records of two greatly significant cultural transitions: the replacement of Neanderthals by modern humans and later, the transition from hunting-gathering to farming after the end of the last Ice Age. The cave consists of an immense 500 square metres (5,400 sq ft) rectangular chamber at the foot of a limestone hill, which rises to the northeast above the village of Theopetra, with an entrance 17 metres (56 ft) wide by 3 metres (9.8 ft) high. It lies at the foot of the Chasia mountain range, which forms the natural boundary between Thessaly and Macedonia prefectures, while the Lithaios River, a tributary of the Pineios River, flows in front of the cave. The small Lithaios River flowing literally on the doorsteps of the cave meant that cave dwellers always had easy access to fresh, clean water without the need to cover daily long distances to find it.
Excavations and research and have discovered petrified diatoms, which have contributed to understanding the Palaeo-climate and climate changes. Radiocarbon dating evidences human presence dating back 50,000 years. The cave used to be open to the public, but is currently closed indefinitely, for safety inspections.
Caves in the vicinity of Meteora were inhabited continuously between 50,000 and 5,000 years ago. The oldest known example of a built structure, a stone wall that blocked two-thirds of the entrance to the Theopetra cave, was constructed 23,000 years ago, probably as a barrier against cold winds – the Earth was experiencing an ice age at the time – and many Paleolithic and Neolithic artifacts of human occupation have been found within the caves.
Meteora are not mentioned in classical Greek myths nor in Ancient Greek literature. The first people documented to inhabit Meteora after the Neolithic Era were an ascetic group of hermit monks who, in the ninth century AD, moved up to the ancient pinnacles. They lived in hollows and fissures in the rock towers, some as high as 1800 ft (550m) above the plain. This great height, combined with the sheerness of the cliff walls, kept away all but the most determined visitors. Initially, the hermits led a life of solitude, meeting only on Sundays and special days to worship and pray in a chapel built at the foot of a rock known as Dhoupiani.
As early as the eleventh century, monks occupied the caverns of Meteora. However, monasteries were not built until the fourteenth century, when the monks sought somewhere to hide in the face of an increasing number of Turkish attacks on Greece. At this time, access to the top was via removable ladders or windlass. Nowadays, getting up there is a lot simpler due to steps being carved into the rock during the 1920s. Of the 24 monasteries, only six (four of men, two of women) are still functioning, with each housing fewer than ten individuals.
The exact date of the establishment of the monasteries is unknown. By the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries, a rudimentary monastic state had formed called the Skete of Stagoi and was centred around the still-standing church of Theotokos (Mother of God). By the end of the twelfth century, an ascetic community had flocked to Meteora.
In 1344, Athanasios Koinovitis from Mount Athos brought a group of followers to Meteora. From 1356 to 1372, he founded the great Meteoron monastery on the Broad Rock, which was perfect for the monks; they were safe from political upheaval and had complete control of the entry to the monastery. The only means of reaching it was by climbing a long ladder, which was drawn up whenever the monks felt threatened.
At the end of the fourteenth century, the Byzantine Empire's reign over northern Greece was being increasingly threatened by Turkish raiders who wanted control over the fertile plain of Thessaly. The hermit monks, seeking a retreat from the expanding Turkish occupation, found the inaccessible rock pillars of Meteora to be an ideal refuge. More than 20 monasteries were built, beginning in the fourteenth century. Six remain today.
Access to the monasteries was originally (and deliberately) difficult, requiring either long ladders latched together or large nets used to haul up both goods and people. This required quite a leap of faith – the ropes were replaced, so the story goes, only "when the Lord let them break". In the words of UNESCO, "The net in which intrepid pilgrims were hoisted up vertically alongside the 373 metres (1,224 ft) cliff where the Varlaam monastery dominates the valley symbolizes the fragility of a traditional way of life that is threatened with extinction."
Until the seventeenth century, the primary means of conveying goods and people from these eyries was by means of baskets and ropes.
In the 1920s there was an improvement in the arrangements. Steps were cut into the rock, making the complex accessible via a bridge from the nearby plateau. During World War II the site was bombed. Many art treasures were stolen.
List of monasteries
At their peak in the sixteenth century there were 24 monasteries at Meteora in Greece. They were created to serve monks and nuns following the teachings of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Much of the architecture of these buildings is Athonite in origin. Today there are six still functioning, while the remainder are largely in ruin. Perched onto high cliffs, they are now accessible by staircases and pathways cut into the rock formations.
Of the six functioning monasteries, the Holy Monastery of St. Stephen and the Holy Monastery of Roussanou are inhabited by nuns while the remainder are inhabited by monks. The total monastic population of the Meteora monasteries in 2015 was 56, comprising 15 monks in four monasteries and 41 nuns in two monasteries. The monasteries are now tourist attractions.
|The Monastery of Great Meteoron - This is the largest of the monasteries located at Meteora, although in 2015 there were only three monks in residence. It was erected in the mid-fourteenth century and was the subject of restoration and embellishment projects in 1483 and 1552. One building serves as the main museum for tourists. The Katholikon (main church), consecrated in honour of the Transfiguration of Jesus was erected in the middle of the fourteenth century and 1387/88 and decorated in 1483 and 1552.|
|The Monastery of Varlaam – The Monastery of Varlaam is the second largest monastery in the Meteora complex, and in 2015 had the largest number of monks (seven) of the monasteries for men. It was built in 1541 and embellished in 1548. A church, dedicated to All Saints, is in the Athonite type (cross-in-square with dome and choirs), with spacious exonarthex (lite) is surrounded by a dome. It was built in 1541-42 and decorated in 1548, while the exonarthex was decorated in 1566. The old refectory is used as a museum while north of the church is the parekklesion of the Three Bishops, built in 1627 and decorated in 1637.|
|The Monastery of Rousanou/St. Barbara was founded in the middle of the sixteenth century and decorated in 1560. Today it is a flourishing nunnery with 13 nuns in residence in 2015.|
|The Monastery of St. Nicholas Anapausas, built in the sixteenth century, has a small church, decorated in 1527 by the noted Cretan painter, Theophanis Strelitzas. There was one monk in residence in 2015.|
|The Monastery of St. Stephen has a small church built in the sixteenth century and decorated in 1545. This monastery rests on the plain rather than on a cliff. It was shelled by the Nazis during World War II who believed it was harboring insurgents, after which it was abandoned. The monastery was given over to nuns in 1961 and they have reconstructed it into a flourishing nunnery, with 28 nuns in residence in 2015.|
|The Monastery of the Holy Trinity is on top of the cliffs. It was built in 1475 and was remodeled in 1684, 1689, 1692, 1741. There were four monks in residence in 2015.|
In popular culture
- The monastery of Holy Trinity was a filming location for the 1981 James Bond movie For Your Eyes Only.
- The 1957 film Boy on a Dolphin is partly shot in Meteora. Clifton Webb's character visits Meteora, and goes up to the Holy Trinity monastery to do some library research.
- Scenes from Tintin and the Golden Fleece were also shot at the Meteora monasteries.
- Michina, the main setting of the movie Pokémon: Arceus and the Jewel of Life is based on Meteora.
- Meteora is the main location in the fiction book The Spook's Sacrifice, by Lancashire author Joseph Delaney.
- One of the surviving characters in Max Brooks's zombie apocalypse novel, "World War Z" finds refuge and peace of mind in the monasteries during and after the zombie war.
- The 2012 film Meteora directed by Spiros Stathoulopoulos is set in the monasteries and scenery of Meteora.
- The primary location and name of Volume 3 in the comic book series "Le Décalogue" by French author Frank Giroud is based on Meteora.
- The Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3 DLC Map "Sanctuary" is set in the monasteries of the Meteora.
- The 2003 album by Linkin Park takes its name from the site.
- The monasteries were a filming location for the 1976 action movie Sky Riders. starring Susannah York, James Coburn and Robert Culp.
- In The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles episode "Travels with Father", Indiana and his father visit Meteora.
- Meteora served as an inspiration for the Eyrie in the Game of Thrones television series.
- The design of the Elysium realm in The Fate of Atlantis downloadable chapter of Assassin's Creed Odyssey was inspired by the geology of Meteora.
- Meteora was the location of the first challenge in the eighth season of the Belgian reality show De Mol.
- A professional wrestling move innovated by CIMA was named after the Meteora, as that was where he had proposed to his wife.
- The external design of the level "St. Francis' Folly" in the 1996 game Tomb Raider and its 2007 remake was inspired by the lofty monasteries of Meteora.
- "Meteora". Oxford Living Dictionaries.
- Sofianos, D.Z.: "Metéora". Holy Monastery of Great Meteoro, 1991.
- "Meteora". Unesco World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- Henry Holland (7 June 2012). Travels in the Ionian Isles, Albania, Thessaly, Macedonia, Etc.: During the Years 1812 and 1813. Cambridge University Press. pp. 241–. ISBN 978-1-108-05044-9.
- "General info about Meteora". Meteora-Greece com.
- Theopetra's Prehistoric Cave from Visit Meteora Travel. Retrieved 26, Jul 2013.
- Y. Facorellis, N. Kyparissi-Apostolika and Y. Maniatis 2001 The cave of Theopetra, Kalambaka: radiocarbon evidence for 50,000 years of human presence. Radiocarbon 43 (2B): 1029-48
-  Archived December 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
- "Meteora". www.beautifulworld.com. Retrieved 2016-09-27.
- "Greece Meteora - Travel with a Challenge". travelwithachallenge.com. Archived from the original on 5 September 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
- Bruce B. Janz (29 April 2017). Place, Space and Hermeneutics. Springer. pp. 67–. ISBN 978-3-319-52214-2.
- "Meteora, Connecting with Heaven presented in History section". www.newsfinder.org. Archived from the original on 24 May 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-19. Retrieved 2015-04-19.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Deriziotis, L. "Description". Ministry of Culture and Sports (Greece). Retrieved 29 August 2017.
- "For Your Eyes Only (1981)". Retrieved 3 April 2018 – via www.imdb.com.
- Hodgson, Mark (17 December 2010). "BLACK HOLE REVIEWS: SKY RIDERS (1976) - best ever hang gliding action movie..." blackholereviews.blogspot.com. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
- A breathtaking spot in Greece served as inspiration for 'Game of Thrones'
- Debi, Eline (8 March 2020). "'De Mol': een advocaat zonder geweten en een (verdacht) blinde mol in aflevering 1" ['De Mol': a lawyer without conscience and a (suspected) blind mole in episode 1]. Flair (in Dutch). Retrieved 10 March 2020.
- Reader's Digest. Strange Worlds Amazing Places (1994), 432 pp. Published: Reader's Digest Association Limited, London. ISBN 0-276-42111-6
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Meteora.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Meteora.|
- Suspended in the air | Meteora timelapse video of Meteora
- Natural History Museum of Meteora and Mushroom Museum Kalambaka