Below are lists of people killed by law enforcement in the United States, both on duty and off duty. Although Congress instructed the Attorney General in 1994 to compile and publish annual statistics on police use of excessive force, this was never carried out, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation does not collect these data either.
The annual average number of justifiable homicides alone was previously estimated to be near 400. Updated estimates from the Bureau of Justice Statistics released in 2015 estimate the number to be around 930 per year, or 1,240 if assuming that non-reporting local agencies kill people at the same rate as reporting agencies. A 2019 study by Esposito, Lee, and Edwards states that police killings are a leading cause of death for men aged 25-29 at 1.8 per 100000, trailing causes such as accidental death (76.6 per 100000), suicide (26.7 per 100000), and other homicides (22.0 per 100000).
Around 2015–2016, The Guardian newspaper ran its own database, The Counted, which tracked US killings by police and other law enforcement agencies including from gunshots, tasers, car accidents and custody deaths. They counted 1,146 deaths for 2015 and 1,093 deaths for 2016. The database can be viewed by state, gender, race/ethnicity, age, classification (e.g., "gunshot"), and whether the person killed was armed.
The Washington Post has tracked shootings since 2015, reporting more than 5,000 incidents since their tracking began. The database can also classify people in various categories including race, age, weapon etc. For 2019, it reported a total of 1,004 people shot and killed by police.
Lists of killings
The numbers show how many total killings per year are recorded in the linked lists, not the actual number of people killed by law enforcement. The listing documents the occurrence of a death, making no implications regarding wrongdoing or justification on the part of the person killed or officer involved.
|2009 (72)||2009 full year|
|2011 (177)||2011 full year|
- Death in custody § United States
- Henry A. Wallace Police Crime Public Database
- List of cases of police brutality
- List of killings by law enforcement officers by country
- List of law enforcement officers killed in the line of duty in the United States
- List of police reforms related to the George Floyd protests
- Lists of killings by law enforcement officers
- Police brutality in the United States
- Police misconduct § United States
- Police riot § United States
- Police use of deadly force in the United States
- Peeples, Lynne (4 September 2019). "What the data say about police shootings". Nature.com. data from Mapping Police Violence. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
- Paull, John (2019). "The Use of Lethal Force by Police in the USA: Mortality Metrics of Race and Disintegration (2015–2019)", Journal of Social and Development Sciences. 5 (4): 30–35
- Tony Dokoupil (January 14, 2014). "What is police brutality? Depends on where you live". NBC News.
- Johnson, Kevin (October 15, 2008). "FBI: Justifiable homicides at highest in more than a decade". USA Today.
- Bialik, Carl (March 6, 2015). "A New Estimate of Killings by Police Is Way Higher—And Still Too Low". FiveThirtyEight.
- Esposito, Michael; Lee, Hedwig; Edwards, Frank (2019-07-31). "Risk of being killed by police use of force in the United States by age, race-ethnicity, and sex". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 116 (34): 16793–16798. doi:10.1073/pnas.1821204116. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 6708348. PMID 31383756.
- "The Counted: People killed by police in the US". The Guardian. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
- Sullivan, John; Hawkins, Derek (April 1, 2016). "In fatal shootings by police, 1 in 5 officers' names go undisclosed". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 7, 2016.
- "Fatal Force: 2019 police shootings database". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
- "Mapping Police Violence". Mapping Police Violence. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
- Fatal Encounters Dot Org National Database of People Killed While Encountering Police. Fatal Encounters.
- The Counted: Tracking people killed by police in the United States 2015–2016. The Guardian.
- Washington Post database of police shootings, 2015–2020. The Washington Post.
- US police killings undercounted by half, study using Guardian data finds – The Guardian. 11 October 2017.
- National Gun Violence Memorial with searchable database of Americans killed with guns. GunMemorial.
- database of police killings in the U.S. 2013–2020. Mapping Police Violence.