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The land of Odisha or former Kalinga has undergone several changes in terms of its boundaries since ancient ages. It was also known by different names like Odra Desha, Kalinga, Hirakhanda, Mahakantara or Utkala in different eras. Unlike other Ancient Kingdoms in India, Odisha for most part of the History remained a stable and major power till medieval era due to wide spread martial culture and prosperity brought by successive native ruling dynasties.
The year 1568 is considered a turning point in the history of Odisha. In 1568, Kalapahad invaded the state. This, aided by internal conflicts, led to a steady downfall of the state from which it did not recover.
One of the sons of Vaivasvata Manu known as Saudyumna could change genders according to changing cycles of a day. As a female and known as Ila she gave birth to the founder of the Lunar or Aila dynasty by the name Pururavas after her union with Budha. As a male, he fathered three other sons Utkala, Gaya and Vinasva, each of who later established kingdoms by their own name in the eastern parts of India including some parts of Kuru kingdom.
First Kalinga dynasty (1700–700 BCE)
According to Mahabharata and some Puranas, the prince Kalinga founded the kingdom of Kalinga, in the current day region of coastal Odisha, including the North Sircars. The Mahabharata also mentions one Srutayudha as the king of the Kalinga kingdom, who joined the Kaurava camp. In the Buddhist text, Mahagovinda Suttanta, Kalinga and its ruler, Sattabhu, have been mentioned.
- King Kalinga[disambiguation needed]
- Dantavakkha or Dantavakhra
- Avakinnayo Karakandu
Second Kalinga dynasty (700–550 BCE)
This dynasty is mentioned in Chullakalinga Jataka and Kalingabodhi Jataka. The first king Kalinga I is said to have broken away from the Danda kingdom along with the kings of Asmaka and Vidarbha as its feudal states.
Unknown dynasty mentioned in Dathavamsha (550–410 BCE)
Third Solar dynasty of Kalinga (410–380 BCE)
- Brahmaadittiya (4th century BC)
Nanda dynasty (380–321 BCE)
Kalinga was believed to be briefly annexed by Mahapadma Nanda.
- Mahapadma Nanda (380–340 BCE)
- Dhana Nanda (322–321 BCE)
Maurya Empire (261–224 BCE)
Ashoka invaded Kalinga in 261 BCE. Kalinga broke away from the Mauryan empire during the rule of Dasharatha.
Mahameghavahana dynasty (225 BCE–300 CE)
Mahamegha Vahana was the founder of the Kalingan Chedi or Cheti Dynasty. The names of Sobhanaraja, Chandraja, Ksemaraja also appear in context. But, Kharavela is the most well known among them. The exact relation between Mahamegha Vahana and Kharavela is not known.
- Mahamegha Vahana
- Vakradeva (or) Virdhharaja
- Kharavela (c. 193 BCE–155 BCE)
- Kudepasiri Vakradeva ll
It is not known that, if Vakadeva was a successor or predecessor of Kharavela. From the inscriptions and coins discovered at Guntupalli and Velpuru, Andhra Pradesh, we know of a series of rulers with the suffix Sada who were possibly distant successors of Kharavela.
Murunda dynasty (150–250 CE)
Satavahana dynasty (78–199 CE)
The history of the region is obscure for a while after the reign.
Naga dynasty of Vindhyatabi (225–360)
Parvatadvarka dynasty (360–400)
Kings mentioned in Raghuvamsha of Kalidasa
Gupta Empire (335–550)
- Samudragupta (335–380 CE)
- Ramagupta (380)
- Chandragupta II (380–415 CE)
- Kumaragupta I (415–455 CE)
- Skandagupta (455–467 CE)
- Purugupta (467–473 CE)
- Kumaragupta II (473–476)
- Budhagupta (476–495)
- Kumaragupta III (495–500)
- Vishnugupta (500–520)
- Vainyagupta (520–540)
- Bhanugupta (540–550 CE)
Nala dynasty (400–740)
- Vrishadhvaja (400–420 CE)
- Varaharaja (420–440 CE)
- Bhavadattavarman or Bhavadattaraja (441–446 CE)
- Arthapatiraja (446–478)
- Skandavarman (480–515 CE)
- Stambha (515–550 CE)
- Sri-Nandanaraja (550–585 CE)
- Prithviraja (585–625 CE)
- Viruparaja (625–660 CE)
- Vilasatunga (660–700 CE)
- Prthivivyaghra (700–740 CE)
Rajarsitulyakula (4th–6th century CE)
The later half of the 4th century, this dynasty was established in the South Kosala region.
- Maharaja Sura
- Maharaja Dayita I (or Dayitavarman I)
- Maharaja Bhimasena I
- Maharaja Dayitavarman II
- Maharaja Bhimasena II (c. 501 or 601–?)
Sharabhapuriya dynasty (475–590)
Not much is known about this dynasty. Everything known about them, comes from the inscriptions on copper plates and coins. They may or may not have also been known as the Amararyakula dynasty. This dynasty is supposed to have started by one Sarabha, who may have been a feudal chief under the Guptas. They ruled over the modern-day region of Raipur, Bilaspur and Kalahandi.
- Sharabha (Śarabha), c. 475–500 CE
- Narendra, c. 500–525 CE
- Prasanna, c. 525–550 CE
- Jayarāja, c. 550–560 CE
- Sudevarāja, c 560–570 CE
- Manamatra alias Durgarāja, c. 570–580 CE
- Sudevarāja, c. 570–580 CE
- Pravarāja, c. 580–590 CE
Mathara dynasty (4th–5th century CE)
The Mathara dynasty ruled during the 4th and the 5th centuries. The Mathara rulers include:
- Shakti-varman (Śaktivarman)
- Prabhanjana-varman (Prabhañjanavarman)
- Ananta-shakti-varman (Anantaśaktivarman)
Vishnukundina Empire (420–555)
- Madhava Varma I (420–455 CE)
- Indra Varma (455–461)
- Madhava Verma II (461–508 CE)
- Vikramendra Varma I (451–528)
- Indra Bhattaraka Varma (528–555 CE)
Vigraha dynasty (575–630)
- Prithivi Vigraha (575–600)
- Loka Vigraha (c. 600 CE –630)
Mudgalas dynasty (580–620)
They ruled the region of North Toshali, the river Mahanadi served as the border between North and South Toshali. In 603 CE, they captured South Toshali from the Vigrahas.
Durjaya dynasty (620–680)
They ruled from the region ranging from coastal Orissa to Mahanadi and to Mahendragiri in Paralakhemundi. This region was called the Kangoda mandala. Sailobhava, the founder of dynasty, is said to have born of a rock, hence the name Shailodbhava. Sailobhava was the adopted son of one Pulindasena, who was possibly a chieftain. They were possibly the subordinates of Shashanka during Madhavaraja II, then they later rebelled.
- Pulindasena (?)
- Sailobhava (?)
- Dharmaraja I (or Ranabhita)
- Madhavaraja I (or Sainyabita I)
- Ayasobhita I (or Chharamparaja)
- Madhavaraja II (or Madhavavarman) (? – 665 CE)
- Madhyamaraja I (or Ayasobhita II) (665 CE – ?)
- Dharmaraja II
- Harsha (606–647)
The Bhauma or Bhauma-Kara Dynasty lasted from c. 736 CE to c. 940 CE. They mostly controlled the coastal areas of Kalinga. But by c.850 CE, they controlled most of modern Orissa. The later part of their reign was disturbed by rebellions from the Bhanja dynasty of the Sonepur and Boudh region.
- Lakshmikaradeva (?)
- Ksemankaradeva (?)
- Sivakaradeva I (or Unmattasimha) (c. 736 –?)
- Subhakaradeva I (c. 790 –?)
- Sivakaradeva II (c. 809 –?)
- Santikaradeva I (or Gayada I) (?)
- Subhakaradeva II (c. 836 –?)
- Subhakaradeva III (?–845)
- Tribhuvana Mahadevi I (widow of Santikaradeva I) (c. 845 –?)
- Santikaradeva II (?)
- Subhakaradeva IV (or Kusumahara II) (c. 881 –?)
- Sivakaradeva III (or Lalitahara) (c. 885 –?)
- Tribhuvana Mahadevi II (or Prithivi Mahadevi, window of Subhakara IV) (c. 894 –?)
- Tribhuvana Mahadevi III (widow of Sivakara III) ?
- Santikaradeva III (?)
- Subhakara V (?)
- Gauri Mahadevi (wife of Subhakara) (?)
- Dandi Mahadevi (daughter of Gauri) (c. 916 or 923 – ?)
- Vakula Mahadevi (stepmother of Dandi Mahadevi) (?)
- Dharma Mahadevi (widow of Santikaradeva) (?)
The mandala states
Between the 8th and 11th centuries, Orissa was divided into mandalas which were feudal states ruled by chieftains. These chieftains swore allegiance to the Bhaumakaras. This period saw the rise of the Bhanj dynasty.
Bhanjas of Khinjali mandala
Early Bhanjas of Khinjali mandala
- Silabhanja I (8th cen CE)
- Satrubhanja (8th cen CE)
- Ranabhanja (9th cen CE)
- Netribhanja I (Nettabhanja I)
- Silabhanja II
- Nettabhanja II
Baudh Bhanjas of Khinjali mandala
Later Bhanjas of Khinjali mandala
- Rayabhanja I
- Rayabhanja II
- Yasobhanja (12th cen CE)
- Jayabhanja (12th cen CE)
- Virabhanja II
Bhanjas of Khijjinga mandala
- Virabhadra Adi-Bhanja (8th cen CE)
- Ranabhanja (924 CE Bamanghaty inscription)
Sulkis of Kodalaka Mandala
Kodalaka refers to the modern-day district of Dhenkanal.
- Kanchanastambha who was succeeded by his son Kalahastambha.
- Ranastambha (c.839-?)
- Kulastambha II
Later, the mandala was divided into two parts, Yamagartta Mandala and Airavatta Mandala. The Bhaumas allowed the Tunga and the Nandodbhava families to rule over Yamagartta Mandala and Airavatta Mandala respectively.
Tungas of Yamagartta Mandala
The Mandala refers to the northern part of modern Dhenkanal district. Jayasimha was ruler of the mandala before the Tungas, he was not a member of the Tunga dynasty.
- Jayasimha (c. 864 )
- Khadaga Tunga
- Vinita Tunga
- Solana Tunga
- Gayada Tunga
- Apsara Deva.
It is not clearly known if Apsara Deva belonged to the Tunga family or not.
Nandodbhavas of Airavatta Mandala
This region extended over the territory comprising southern part of Dhenkanal district, some western portion of Cuttack district and almost the entire Nayagarh district.
- Devananda I
- Devananda II (c. 920–?)
- Dhruvananda (c. 929–?)
Mayuras of Banei Mandala
This region roughly comprised the modern-day Banei sub-division and parts of Panposh subdivision of Sundergarh district.
- Udita Varsha
- Teja Varsha
- Udaya Varsha
Gangas of Svetaka Mandala
The capital of Svetaka known as Svetakapura has been identified with modern Chikiti.
- Jayavarma Deva
- Gangaka Vilasa
- Bhupendra Varman
- Indravarman I
- Indravarman II
- Samantavarman (c. 909–921?)
Somvanshi (Keshari) dynasty
- Janmejaya I (c. 882–992)
- Yayati I (c. 922–955)
- Bhimaratha (c. 955–80)
- Dharmarstha (c. 980–1005)
- Nahusa (c. 1005–1021)
- Indranatha (c. 1021–1025)
- Yayati II (c. 1025–1040)
- Udyotakesari (c. 1040–1065)
- Janmejaya II (c. 1065–1080)
- Puranjaya (c. 1080–1090)
- Karnadeva (c. 1090–1110)
Janmejaya, the predecessor of Karnadeva and the son of Janmejaya II, was not considered a ruler by his successors, as he captured the throne in a violent coup and soon-after lost it.
Chindaka Naga dynasty
The Chindaka Nagas are believed by certain historians to have arrived in the Chakrakota Mandala region (Bastar and Koraput) with the expedition of Rajendra Chola. The Telugu Chodas who invaded the region later, settled as their feudal rulers. This dynasty continued to rule the region till the thirteenth century with not many details known about their rulers excepting a few.
- Nrupati Bhushana (1023– ?)
- Jagadeka Bhushana or Dharavarsha
- Mittavarman, a feudal Eastern Ganga king under Vakataka rule (c. ?–?)
- Indravarman I (c. ?–537?)
- Samantavarman (c. 537–562)
- Hastivarman (c. 562–578)
- Indravarman II (c. 578–589)
- Danarnava (c. 589–652)
- Indravarman III (c. 589–652)
- Gunarnava (c. 652–682)
- Devendravarman I (c. 652–682?)
- Anantavarman III (c. 808–812?)
- Rajendravarman II (c. 812–840?)
- Devendravarman V (c. 885–895?)
- Gunamaharnava I (c. 895–939?)
- Vajrahasta II (or Anangabhimadeva I) (c. 895–939?)
- Gundama - (c. 939–942)
- Kamarnava I (c. 942–977)
- Vinayaditya (c. 977–980)
- Vajrahasta IV (c. 980–1015)
- Kamarnava II (c. 1015 – 6 months after)
- Gundama II (c. 1015–1038)
- Vajrahasta V (c. 1038–1070)
- Rajaraja Deva I (c. 1070–1077)
- Anantavarman Chodaganga (c. 1077–1147)
- Jatesvaradeva (c. 1147–1156)
- Raghava Deva (c. 1156–1170)
- Rajaraja Deva II (c. 1170–1190)
- Anangabhima Deva II (c. 1190–1198)
- Rajraja Deva III (c. 1198–1211)
- Anangabhima Deva III (c. 1211–1238)
- Narasimha Deva I (1238–1264)
- Bhanu Deva I (1264–1278)
- Narasimha Deva II (1279–1306)
- Bhanu Deva II (1306–1328)
- Narasimha Deva III (1328–1352)
- Bhanu Deva III (1352–1378)
- Narasimha Deva IV (1378–1414)
- Bhanu Deva IV (1414–1434)
Gudari Kataka Eastern Ganga rulers
According to Gangavansucharitam written in sixteenth or seventeenth century, Bhanu Deva IV also known as Kajjala Bhanu founded a new small princedom in southern Odisha at Gudari in modern Rayagada district after he was toppled from power by his general Kapilendra Deva.
- Kajjala Bhanu or Bhanu Deva IV
- Svarna Bhanu
- Kalasandha Deva
- Chudanga Deva
- Harimani Deva
- Narasimha Deva
- Ananta Deva
- Padmanabha Deva
- Pitambara Deva
- Purrushottama Anangabhima Deva or Bhima Deva
- Narasingha Deba (1309–1320)
- Madanrudra Deba (1320–1339)
- Narayana Rudra Deba (1339–1353)
- Ananda Rudra Deba (1353–1354)
- Ananda Rudra Deba (1354–1367)
- Jayarudra Deba (1367–1399)
- Lakhsmi Narasingha Deba (1399–1418)
- Madhukarna Gajapati (1418–1441)
- Murtunjaya Bhanu Deba (1441–1467)
- Madhaba Bhanu Deba (1467–1495)
- Chandra Betal Bhanu Deba (1495–1520)
- Subarnalinga Bhanu Deba (1520–1550)
- Sibalinga Narayan Bhanudeo (1550–1568)
- Subarna Kesari Govinda Gajapati Narayan Deo (1568–1599)
- Mukunda Rudra Gajapati Narayan Deo (1599–1619)
- Mukunda Deo (1619–1638)
- Ananta Padmanabh Gajapati Narayan Deo I (1638–1648)
- Sarbajgan Jagannatha Gajapati Narayan Deo I (1648–1664)
- Narahari Narayan Deo (1664–1691)
- Bira Padmanabh Narayan Deo II (1691–1706)
- Prataprudra Gajapati Narayan Deo I (1706–1736)
- Jagannatha Gajapati Narayana Deo II (1736–1771)
- Goura Chandra Gajapati Narayan Deo I (1771–1803)
- Purushottam Gajapati Narayan Deo (1803–1806)
- Jagannath Gajapati Narayan Deo III (1806–1850)
- Prataprudra Gajapati Narayan Deo II (1850–1885)
- Goura Chandra Gajapati Narayan Deo II (1885–1904)
- Krushna Chandra Gajapati Narayan Deo (1913 – 25 May 1974)
- Gopinath Gajapati Narayan Deo (25 May 1974 – 10 January 2020)
- Kalyani Gajapati (10 January 2020–present)
Chikiti Ganga rulers
- Kesaba Rautara or Bira Karddama Singha Rautara (881-940)
- Balabhadra Rautara (941-997)
- Madhaba Rautara (998-1059)
- Languli Rautara (1060-1094)
- Mohana Rautara (1095-1143)
- Balarama Rautara (1144-1197)
- Biswanatha Rautara (1198-1249)
- Harisarana Rautara (1250-1272)
- Raghunatha Rautara (1273-1313)
- Dinabandhu Rautara (1314-1364)
- Gopinatha Rautara (1365-1417)
- Ramachandra Rautara (1418-1464)
- Narayana Rautara (1465-1530)
- Narasingha Rautara (1531-1583)
- Lokanatha Rautara (1584-1633)
- Jadumani Rautara (1634-1691)
- Madhusudana Rajendra Deba (1692-1736)
- Kulamani Rajendra Deba (1737-1769)
- Krusnachandra Rajendra Deba (1770-1790)
- Pitambara Rajendra Deba (1791-1819)
- Gobindachandra Rajendra Deba (1820-1831)
- Kulamani Rajendra Deba (1832-1835)
- Brundabanachandra Rajendra Deba (1835-1846)
- Jagannatha Rajendra Deba (1847-1855)
- Biswambhara Rajendra Deba (1856-1885)
- Kisorachandra Rajendra Deba (1885-1903)
- Radhamohana Rajendra Deba (1903-1923)
- Gaurachandra Rajendra Deba (1934)
- Sachhidananda Rajendra Deba
Naga dynasty of Kalahandi
- Raghunath Sai (1005–1040 AD)
- Pratap Narayan Deo (1040–1072 AD)
- Birabar Deo (1072–1108 AD)
- Jugasai Deo I (1108–1142 AD)
- Udenarayan Deo (1142–1173 AD)
- Harichandra Deo (1173–1201 AD)
- Ramachandra Deo (1201–1234 AD)
- Gopinath Deo (1234–1271 AD)
- Balabhadra Deo (1271–1306 AD)
- Raghuraj Deo (1306–1337 AD)
- Rai Singh Deo I (1337–1366 AD)
- Haria Deo (1366–1400 AD)
- Jugasai Deo II (1400–1436 AD)
- Pratap Narayan Deo II (1436–1468 AD)
- Hari Rudra Deo (1468–1496 AD)
- Anku Deo (1496–1528 AD)
- Pratap Deo (1528–1564 AD)
- Raghunath Deo (1564–1594 AD)
- Biswambhar Deo (1594–1627 AD)
- Rai Singh Deo II (1627–1658 AD)
- Dusmant Deo (1658–1693 AD)
- Jugasai Deo III (1693–1721 AD)
- Khadag Rai Deo (1721–1747 AD)
- Rai Singh Deo III (1747–1771 AD)
- Purusottam Deo (1771–1796 AD)
- Jugasai Dei IV (1796–1831 AD)
- Fate Narayan Deo (1831–1853 AD)
- Udit Pratap Deo I (1853–1881 AD)
- Raghu Keshari De (1894–1897 AD)
- Court of Wards (1897–1917 AD)
- Brajamohan Deo (1917–1939 AD)
- Pratap Keshari Deo (1939-1947 AD until the merger with Orissa state)
Early Chauhan rulers
This Rajput dynasty had arrived from Mainpuri or Garh Sambhor amidst a conflict with the Muslim rulers of Delhi around 13th or 14th century. The founder Ramai Deva was still in the womb of his mother when his father was murdered by the Yavanas and she fled to the hilly and forest terrains of western Odisha to seek refuge. The early 17th-century works by the Poet Gangadhar Mishra (a descendant of the famous Sanskrit poet Sambhukara from Puri) known as Kosalananda and early 18th-century work by the Chauhan king Vaijala Deva known as Probodha Chandrika and Jayachandrika give detailed descriptions about their origins and foundation of the state first at Patna and then Sambalpur.
Ramai Deva was first adopted by a local priest or Brahmin chief known as Chakradhara Panigrahi who provided shelter and refuge to his fleeing mother during her pregnancy. Ramai Deva later won over other local chiefs and established the Patna state. He married the daughter of the Eastern Ganga King Bhanudeva III
- Ramai Deva (1360-1380)
- Mahalinga Deva (1380-1385)
- Vatsaraja Deva (1385-1410)
- Vaijala Deva I (1410-1430)
- Bhojaraj Deva (1430-1455)
- Pratap Rudra Deva I (1455-1480)
- Bhupal Deva I (1480-1500)
- Vikramaditya Deva I (1500-1520)
- Vaijal Deva II (1520-1540)
- Bajra Hiradhara Deva (1540-1570)
- Narsingh Deva (1570-1577)
- Hamir Deva (1577-1581)
- Pratap Deva II (1581-1620)
- Vikramaditya Deva II (1620-1640)
- Mukunda Deva (1640-1670)
- Balaram Deva (1670-1678)
- Hrdesha Deva (1678-1685)
- Rai Singh Deva (1685-1762)
- Prithviraj Deva (1762-1765)
- Ramchandra Singh Deo I (1765-1820)
- Bhupal Singh Deo (1820-1848)
- Hiravajra Singh Deo (1848-1866)
- Pratap Singh Deo (1866-1878)
- Ramchandra Singh Deo II (1878-1895)
- Lal Dalganjan Singh Deo (1895-1910)
- Prithviraj Singh (1910-1924)
- Rajendra Narayan Singh Deo (1924-1948)
- Balarama Deva (1570 - 1595 CE)
- Hrdayanarayana Deva (1595 - 1605)
- Balabhadra Deva (1605 - 1630)
- Madhukar Deva (1630-1660)
- Baliara Deva (1650-1688)
- Ratan Singh (1688 - 1690)
- Chhatra Sai (1690 - 1725)
- Ajit Singh (1725 - 1766)
- Abhaya Singh (1766-1778)
- Balabhadra Singh (1778 - 1781)
- Jayanta Singh (1781 - 1818)
- Maharaj Sai (1820 - 1827)
- Rani Mohan Kumari (f) (1827 - 1833)
- Narayan Singh (1833 - 1849)
- Surendra Sai (in rebellion) (1857 - 1862)
Gajapati Empire (Suryavamsa dynasty)
- Kapilendra Deva (1435–67)
- Purushottama Deva (1467–97)
- Prataparudra Deva (1497–1540)
- Kaluadeva (alias Ramachandradeva)
- Kakharuadeva (alias Purushottamdeva)
Silavamshi rulers of Nandapur, Koraput
Silavamshi rulers are said to be the descendants of the Saila Vanshi rulers from Nadivardhana region near today's Nagpur.
- Ganga Raja (1353–??)
- Viswanadha Raja or Bhairava Raja
- Pratap Ganga Raja (??–1443)
The Suryavanshi rulers are said to be the descendant of Kanakasena. Vinayak Dev, a junior prince of a small kingdom in Kashmir migrated to Varanasi and later to Kalinga. He married the daughter of the last Silavanshi ruler of Nandapur Pratap Ganga Raj and became an heir to the throne. The last independent king to have ruled over the Utkala and Kalinga region Vishwanath Dev Gajapati was also born in this dynasty. At the time of his death, Ibrahim Qutb Shah led the invasion of Kalinga and defeated his son Balaram Dev. As a result, Balaram Dev and his next four successors ruled as tributary rulers under Golconda Qutb Shahi. However, Vishwambhar Dev inherited the kingdom in 1672 and defeated the foujdar of Chicacole in 1675 thus claiming the integral parts of Kalinga (South Odisha and North Andhra Pradesh). The Suryavanshi rulers were referred to as the Maharajah of Kalinga until the early 18th century. In 1711, due to interior conflicts and maladministration both within and outside the kingdom, the Suryavanshis of Jeypore suffered a major backlash as they saw their northern and eastern feudatories claiming independence with the help of Marathas and Viziaram Raz who was the former minister of the kingdom and later the founder of Vizianagaram estate. 
- Vinayak Deo (1443–1476)
- Vijay Chandraksha Deo (1476v1510)
- Bhairava Deo (1510–1527)
- Vishwanatha Deo Gajapati (1527–1571)
- Balarama Deo (1571–1597)
- Yeshovanta Deo (1597–1610)
- Krishna Deo (1610–1648)
- Veer Vikram Deo (1648–1669)
- Krishna Deo (1669–1672)
- Vishwambhara Deo I (1672–1676)
- Mallakimardhana Krishna Deo (1676–1681)
- Hari Deo (1681–1684)
- Balarama Deo I (1684–1686)
- Raghunath Krishna Deo (1686–1708)
- Ramchandra Deo I (1708–1711)
- Balarama Deo II (1711–1713)
- Vishwambhara Deo II (1713–?)
- Lala Krishna Deo (1752–1758)
- Vikram Deo I (1758–1779)
- Ramchandra Deo II (1779–1825)
- Vikram Deo II (1825–1860)
- Ramchandra Deo III (1860–1889)
- Vikram Deo III (1889–1920)
- Ramchandra Deo IV (1920–1931)
- Vikram Deo IV (1931–1951)
Later Bhanj dynasty states
- Adi Bhanj (?Adi Bhanj II of the Bhanj dynasty) (12th cen CE)
- Savesvara Bhanj Deo (1688 – 1711)
- Viravikramaditya Bhanj Deo (1711 – 1728)
- Raghunath Bhanj Deo (1728 – 1750)
- Chakradhar Bhanj Deo (1750 – 1761)
- Damodar Bhanj Deo (1761 – 1796)
- Rani Sumitra Devi (f) - Regent of Mayurbhanj (1796 – 1810)
- Rani Jamuna Devi (f) - Regent of Mayurbhanj (1810 - 1813)
- Tribikram Bhanj Deo (1813 – 1822)
- Jadunath Bhanj Deo (1822 – 1863)
- Shrinath Bhanj Deo (1863 – 1868)
- Krishna Chandra Bhanj Deo (1868 – 29 May 1882)
- Sriram Chandra Bhanj Deo (29 May 1882 – 22 February 1912)
- Purna Chandra Bhanj Deo (22 February 1912 – 21 April 1928)
- Pratap Chandra Bhanj Deo (21 Apr 1928 – 1 January 1948)
- Jyoti Bhanj (12th cen CE)
- Jagannath Bhanj (1688 - 1700)
- Raghunath Bhanj (1700 - 1719)
- Gopinath Bhanj (1719 - 1736)
- Narsingh Narayan Bhanj (1736 - 1757)
- Daneswar Narayan Bhanj (1757 - 1758)
- Jagateswar Narayan Bhanj (1758 - 1762)
- Pratap Balbhadra Bhanj (1762 - 1794)
- Janardan Bhanj (1794 - 1825)
- Gadadhar Narayan Bhanj Deo (1825 - 22 March 1861)
- Dhanurjai Narayan Bhanj Deo (4 September 1861 – 27 October 1905)
- Gopinath Narayan Bhanj Deo (27 Oct 1905 – 12 August 1926)
- Balbhadra Narayan Bhanj Deo (12 Aug 1926 – 1 January 1948)
- Narayan Singh Bhujang Mandhata Birat Basant Harichandan (1521-1564)
- Ram Chandra Mardraj Harichandan (1797-1832)
- Govind Chandra Mardraj Harichandan (1832-1833)
- Chira Devi - Rani (1833-1843)
- Krishna Chandra Mardraj Harichandan (1843-1893)
- Shyam Chandra Mardraj Harichandan (1893-6 Jul 1913) (from the Bhanj dynasty of Mayurbhanj State)
- Kishor Chandra Mardraj Harichandan (6 July 1913-1 January 1948)
The Baudh princely state had gradually become a small state after it had ceded away large sways of territories in the west and south to the Chauhans of Sambalpur and Daspalla region in Nayagarh which became a separate Bhanja princely state later.
- Ananga Bhanja (Ananga Deba) (14th cen CE)
- Siddhabhanja Deba (Siddheswar Deba) (1640s)
- Pratap Deba
- Bswambhar Deba (1778-1817)
- Chandrasekhar Deba (1817-1839)
- Pitamber Deo (1839-5 October 1879)
- Jogendra Deo (5 October 1879-1913)
- Narayan Prasad Deo (1913-1 January 1948)
The Daspalla Bhanja state was established by Sal Bhanja from the territories gifted to his father Narayan Bhanja Deo by his brother, the ruler of Baudh.
- Naren Bhanja (1498 CE)
- Chakradhar Deo Bhanja (1653–1701)
- Padmanav Deo Bhanja (1701–1753)
- Trilochan Deo Bhanja (1753–1775)
- Makunda Bhank Deo Bhanja (1775–1795)
- Guri Charan Deo Bhanja (1795–1805)
- Krishna Chanda Deo Bhanja (1805–1845)
- Madhusudan Deo Bhanja (1845–1861)
- Narsimha Deo Bhanja (1861–1873)
- Chaitan Deo Bhanja (1873–19 April 1897)
- Narayan Deo Bhanja (19 April 1897–11 Dec 1913)
- Kishor Chandra Deo Bhanja (11 December 1913–1 January 1948)
Early Bhoi dynasty
- Govinda Vidyadhara (1541–1548)
- Chakrapratapa (1548–1557)
- Narasimha Jena (1557–1558)
- Raghuram Chhotaraya (1558–1560)
Bhoi dynasty was short-lived but during their reign, Orissa came into conflicts with the invaders from Golconda. After being deposed by Mukunda Deva, the dynasty shifts its power centre to Khurda where they continue as Rajas of Khurda.
Chalukya dynasty (Kalinga)
Instigated by Mukunda Deva's alliance with Akbar, Sulaiman's army led by Kalapahad invaded Orissa in 1568. The Karranis of Bengal had control over much of Northern Odisha coast above Cuttack, while the Bhoi dynasty established the Khurda Kingdom and the Garhjat Kings had conrol over much of the interior regions of Odisha.
In the Battle of Tukaroi, which took place in modern-day Balasore, Daud was defeated and retreated deep into Orissa. The battle led to the Treaty of Katak in which Daud ceded the whole of Bengal and Bihar, retaining only Odisha. The treaty eventually failed after the death of Munim Khan (governor of Bengal and Bihar) who died at the age of 80. Sultan Daud Khan took the opportunity and invaded Bengal. This would lead to the Battle of Raj Mahal in 1576.
Post Medieval Period
- Qutlu Khan Lohani (former officer of Daud Khan Karrani, ruler of coastal Northeastern Orissa and south Bengal) (1576-1590)
- Nasir Khan (son of Qutlu Khan, Mughal vassal) (1590–1592)
- Man Singh I (Mughal Subahdar) (1592–1606)
Man Singh I attacked Nasir Khan when the later broke a treaty by attacking the temple town of Puri. Orissa was annexed into the Bengal subah (province).The Mughal rule was weak in the region, this allowed local chieftains to somewhat enjoy a semi-independence.
By 1717, with the weakening of Mughal Empire following Mughal–Maratha Wars in which the Marathas became the dominant power in the subcontinent, the Bhoi dynasty of Khurda kingdom and the semi-autonomous Garhjat kings of Odisha became independent of the Mughal sovereign authority, while the Nawabs of Bengal retained control over the Northern coast of Odisha from Cuttack to Subarnarekha river until the region was finally conquered by the Maratha Empire in 1741.
- Murshid Quli Khan (Nawab of Bengal) (1717-1727)
- Shuja-ud-Din (Nawab of Bengal) (1727–1739)
- Sarfaraz Khan (Nawab of Bengal) (1727 and 1739–1740)
- Alivardi Khan (Nawab of Bengal) (1740–1741)
The Nawabs of Bengal controlled the controlled the Northern Odisha coast from Cuttack to Subarnarekha river which was conquered by the Marathas in 1741 and eventually ceded following the peace treaty.
The Maratha Empire general, Raghoji I Bhonsle of the Nagpur kingdom led the Maratha expeditions in Bengal in 1741 which extended Maratha control over Odisha and signed a treaty with Alivardi Khan in 1751, ceding the perpetuity of Cuttack up to the river Suvarnarekha to the Marathas.
- Raghoji I Bhonsle (Maratha general of Nagpur) (1741–1755)
- Janoji Bhonsle (1755–1772)
- Mudhoji Bhonsle (1772–1788)
- Raghoji II Bhonsle (1788–1803)
- Seo Bhatt Sathe (1751)
- Bhawani Pandit (1764)
- Sambhaji Ganesha (1768)
- Madhaji Hari (1773)
- Rajaram Pandit (1778)
- Sadasiva Rao (1793)
Later Chauhan rulers
The territory of Sonepur was procured by the Chauhans of Sambalpur from the Bhanja kings of Baudh.
- Madan Gopal (1650 - 1680 CE)
- Lal Sai Deo (1680 - 1689)
- Purusottam Deo (1689 – 1709)
- Raj Singh Deo (1709 – 1729)
- Achal Singh Deo (1729 – 1749)
- Divya Singh Deo (1749 – 1766)
- Jarawar Singh Deo (1766 – 1767)
- Sobha Singh Deo (1767 – 1781)
- Prithvi Singh Deo (1781 – 1841)
- Niladhar Singh Deo (1841 – 11 September 1891)
- Pratap Rudra Singh (11 September 1891 – 8 August 1902)
- Bir Mitrodaya Singh Deo (8 August 1902 – 29 April 1937)
- Sudhansu Shekhar Singh Deo (29 April 1937 – 1 January 1948)
- Gopal Rai (1600–1625)
- Ramsai Deo I
- Padman Rai
- Vishnu Rai
- Ghansi Rai Deo
- Gopinath Sai Deo
- Ramsai Deo II
- Balabhadra Sai
- Prataprudra Singh (1793–1818)
- Ratan Singh Deo (1818–1835)
- Sudarsan Singh Deo (1835–1849)
- Krishna Chandra Singh Deo (1849–1867)
- Padma Singh Deo (1867–1889)
- Brajraj Singh Deo (1889–1907)
- Vir Vikram Singh Deo (1907–1913)
- Artatran Singh Deo (1913–1946)
- Anup Singh Deo (1946 – until accession)
Later Bhoi dynasty
After 1576, with the advent of Mughal rule, the centre of power of Bhoi dynasty had shifted from Cuttack to Khurda. They continue to remain as vassal of the Mughal empire until 1717 and later under the Maratha empire from 1741 until they were eventually ceded to the British empire under the control of the British East India Company in 1803 following the Second Anglo-Maratha War with the signing of the Treaty of Deogaon.
- Ramachandra Deva I (Abhinav Indradyumna) (1568-1600)
- Purusottam Deva (1600–1621)
- Narasingha Deva (1621–1647)
- Balabhadra Deva (1647–1657)
- Mukunda Deva I (1657–1689)
- Dibyasingha Deva I (1689 – 1716)
- Harekrushna Deva (1716–1720)
- Gopinath Deva (1720–1727)
- Ramachandra Deva II (1727–1736)
- Birakesari Deva I (Bhagirathi Deva) (1736–1793)
- Dibyasingha Deva II (1793–1798)
- Mukundeva Deva II (1798-1804)
The Rajas of Khurda continued to rule the region well into the early 1800s but by then their power had diminished. Then the Raja of Khurda along with other local chieftain led a series of rebellions against the British which was suppressed and the Raja of Khurda was later exiled to Puri.
- Mukundeva Deva II (1804-1817) (exiled and continues as Raja of Puri)
- Ramchandra Deva III (1817-1854)
- Birakesari Deva II (1854-1859)
Eastern Gangas of Puri
- Dibyasingha Deva III (1859-1882) (succeeded the Bhois as Gajapati and King of Puri)
- Mukundeva Deva III (1882-1926)
- Ramchandra Deva IV (1926-1956)
- Birakisore Deva III (1956-1970)
- Dibyasingha Deva IV (1970-current)
British colonial period
Mukundeva Deva II was discontent under Maratha rule, so he agreed to help British troops to march through his territory without resistance. In 1803, Maratha ceded Orissa to the British empire. The Rajas and other local chieftains lead a series of rebellions against the British. Notable among the rebellions is that of Surendra Sai.
Odia speaking people at this time were placed in different provinces. Around 1870, a movement was started to unify the Oriya-speaking within a state. In 1936, the new state of Orissa was formed. About 25 princely states, remained independent but they were later integrated by 1947, except Saraikela, Kharsawan, Bastar, Parlakhemundi Zamindari (rest of today's Vijayanagaram).
Lieutenant Governors and Governors of Bihar and Orissa Province
- Sir Charles Stuart Bayley (1912-1915)
- Sir Edward Albert Gait (1915-1918) & (1918-1920)
- Sir Edward Vere Levinge (acting) (1918)
- Satyendra Prasanna Sinha, 1st Baron Sinha (1920-1921)
- Havilland Le Mesurier (acting) (1921-1922)
- Sir Henry Wheeler (1922-1927)
- Sir Hugh Lansdown Stephenson (1927-1932)
- Sir James David Sifton (1932-1936)
Governors of Orissa Province
- Sir John Austen Hubback (1936-1938) & (1938-1941)
- George Townsend Boag (Acting) (1938)
- Howthorne Lewis (1941-1946)
- Chandulal Madhavlal Trivedi (1946-1947)
Prime Minister of Orissa Province
- Krushna Chandra Gajapati (1937) & (1941-1944)
- Bishwanath Das (1937-1939)
- Harekrushna Mahatab (1946-1947)
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