John Thomas Douglass
New York City, US
|Died||1886 (aged 38–39)|
|Known for||Virginia's Ball (1868)|
John Thomas Douglass (1847–1886) was an American composer, virtuoso violinist, conductor and teacher. He is best known for composing Virginia's Ball (1868), which is generally regarded as the first opera written by a Black composer. The work is now lost, however, and his only extant composition is The Pilgrim: Grand Overture (1878) for piano. His biography from James Monroe Trotter's Music and Some Highly Musical People (1878)—in which The Pilgrim survives—suggests that he wrote many now lost pieces for piano, orchestra and particularly guitar, which he was known to play.
A highly regarded violinist, he led a solo career and traveled with various groups, including the Hyers Sisters. He taught David Mannes in his youth and Mannes later founded the Colored Music Settlement School in his memory.
Life and career
John Thomas Douglass was born in New York in 1847. Virtually nothing else is known about his early life, though it is thought that during his youth—due to a wealthy patron—he was able to study in Europe.
He settled in New York by the late 1860s. His three-act opera Virginia's Ball premiered in New York, at the Stuyvesant Institute on Broadway; the music is now lost. The work was registered with the United States Copyright Office in 1868, and had presumably been performed the same year.
In the 1870s he began performing widely, because, as musicologist Eileen Southern explains, "like many concert artists of the time, Douglass could not earn a living solely with his violin." As such, he toured with different Georgia Minstrels and the Hyers Sisters. With the Hyers Sisters, the sisters' father, Samuel B. Hyers, organized a company which included Douglass, tenor Wallace King, John W. Luca and pianist Alexander C. Taylor. He returned to New York in the 1880s, where he conducted a music studio and a string ensemble, the latter of which played for various public entertainments, such as dances.
Contemporary sources describe Douglass as "very justly ranked with the best musicians of [the United States]"; "the master violinist"; and "one of the greatest musicians of the race". The Encyclopedia of African American Music (2010) notes that Douglass, along with his contemporaries Walter F. Craig and Joseph Douglass—all active in New York—joined the elder Edmond Dédé in the pantheon of major black violinists of the time. Craig and Douglass in particular obtained a "high level of virtuosity". He was also known to have played guitar.
Douglass also managed a teaching studio, where he taught violin to David Mannes (1866–1959) in his youth. Mannes was later a violinist and then concertmaster of the New York Symphony Orchestra, founding the Colored Music Settlement School in 1916 in the memory of Douglass. Douglass did not live to see the creation of the school having died in 1886.
Only two works of Douglass's are known, Virginia's Ball and The Pilgrim: Grand Overture—the former is lost, while the latter has survived. He is thought to have written many other works; in Music and Some Highly Musical People (1878), Trotter says "He has also composed many fine pieces for orchestras and for piano." Trotter also reports that he arranged and composed a "great deal of music" for guitar.
The lack of surviving works for black composers of the time is not uncommon. Like Douglass, Frederick Elliott Lewis (1846–18?) and Jacob J. Sawyer (1856–1885) only have a single surviving keyboard work, all published in Music and Some Highly Musical People.[n 1]
Virginia's Ball was an opera in 3 acts by John Thomas Douglass. It was premiered in 1868 at the Stuyvesant Institute on Broadway and is only known to have been performed once; it is now lost. Douglass's authorship of Virginia's Ball makes it generally considered to be the first opera by a black composer. However, Southern notes that Harry Lawrence Freeman may be considered the first significant black composer of opera, as he wrote fourteen and had five performed from 1893 to 1947 during his lifetime.[n 2] Throughout the 20th century, Freeman was thought to be the first black composer to write an opera, until Southern's The Music of Black Americans: A History (1971) revealed Douglass's contribution.
Musicologists Mellonee V. Burnim and Portia K. Maultsby note that at this time African Americans were working to associate themselves with the "lavish forms of entertainment" in the vein of Mozart, Rossini and Verdi. The monetary profit from works like Virginia's Ball was likely miniscule.
The Pilgrim: Grand Overture
Douglass's only surviving work is The Pilgrim: Grand Overture for piano. It was published in Trotter's Music and Some Highly Musical People by Lee and Shepard in 1878, though Trotter records that Douglass wrote the piece earlier, in his twenties (1867–1876). The piece is in cut time (), E minor and marked Andante initially, but has many tempo changes throughout: Andante, Allegro Vivace, Adagio, Allegro, Lento and Allegro. The continuous use of scales, tremolos and embellishments evokes the sense of a piano transcription from an orchestral score.
- While the surviving keyboard works by Douglass (The Pilgrim: Grand Overture), Lewis (Scenes of Youth: Fantasia for Piano), and Sawyer (Welcome to the Era) are in Music and Some Highly Musical People, Sawyer has a multitude of other works that have survived, while Douglass and Lewis only have their respective keyboard work.
- Louisa Melvin Delos Mars was the first black female composer to write an opera and have it performed. This occurred with her operetta Leoni, the Gypsy Queen, premiered in Providence, Rhode Island in 1889.
- Bean, Hatch & Brooks 1996, p. 168.
- Trotter 1878, p. 301.
- Southern 1997, p. 251.
- Graham 2015.
- Price III, Kernodle & Maxile 2010, p. 246.
- Glaser, Shipton & Barnett 2003.
- Koskoff 2000, p. 616 [print: 646].
- Martin 1988, p. 138.
- Trotter 1878, p. 30 (appendix).
- Trotter 1878, p. 101 (appendix).
- Trotter 1878, p. 22 (appendix).
- Schüler 2014.
- Southern 2001.
- Burnim & Maultsby 2014, p. 301.
- Kirk 2001, p. 110.
- de Lerma 1990, p. 155.
- Trotter 1878, pp. 30–43 (appendix).
- Bean, Annemarie; Hatch, James V.; Brooks, McNamara, eds. (1996). Inside the Minstrel Mask: Readings in Nineteenth-Century Blackface Minstrelsy. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 978-0-8195-6300-2.
- Burnim, Mellonee V.; Maultsby, Portia K. (2014). African American Music: An Introduction. Abingdon-on-Thames: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-317-93442-4. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Glaser, Matt; Shipton, Alyn; Barnett, Anthony (2003) . "Violin, jazz". Grove Music Online. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.J468100. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Graham, Sandra Jean (2015) . "Hyers Sisters". Grove Music Online. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.A2284679. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Kirk, Elise K. (2001). American Opera (Music in American Life). Champaign: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-02623-2.
- Koskoff, Ellen, ed. (2000). Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. 3: The United States and Canada. New York: Garland Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8240-4944-7.
- de Lerma, Dominique-René (Spring 1990). "A Musical and Sociological Review of Scott Joplin's "Treemonisha"". Black Music Research Journal. University of Illinois Press. 10 (1): 153–159. doi:10.2307/779549. JSTOR 779549. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Martin, Sherrill (1988). Feel the Spirit: Studies in Nineteenth-century Afro-American Music. Santa Barbara: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-26234-0.
- Price III, Emmett G.; Kernodle, Tammy L.; Maxile, Horace, eds. (2010). Encyclopedia of African American Music. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-34200-4. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Schüler, Nico (2014) . "Sawyer, Jacob J.". Grove Music Online. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.A2267610. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Southern, Eileen (1997) . The Music of Black Americans: A History. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0-393-03843-9. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Southern, Eileen (2001). "Freeman, (Harry) Lawrence". Grove Music Online. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.10187. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Trotter, James M. (1878). Music and Some Highly Musical People. Boston: Lee and Shepard. OCLC 1157161991. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)