|Written in||C, C++|
|Working state||Preinstalled on Chromebooks, Chromeboxes, Chromebits, Chromebase|
|Initial release||June 15, 2011|
|Latest release||72.0.3626.122 (March 5, 2019) [±]|
|Update method||Rolling release|
|Platforms||x86, ARMv7, x64|
|Kernel type||Monolithic (Linux kernel)|
|Default user interface||WIMP-based web browser windows|
|License||Google Chrome OS Terms of Service|
Chrome OS is an operating system designed by Google that is based on the Linux kernel and uses the Google Chrome web browser as its principal user interface. As a result, Chrome OS primarily supports web applications.
Google announced the project in July 2009, conceiving it as an operating system in which both applications and user data reside in the cloud: hence Chrome OS primarily runs web applications. Source code and a public demo came that November. The first Chrome OS laptop, known as a Chromebook, arrived in May 2011. Initial Chromebook shipments from Samsung and Acer occurred in July 2011.
Chrome OS has an integrated media player and file manager. It supports Chrome Apps, which resemble native applications, as well as remote access to the desktop. Android applications started to become available for the operating system in 2014, and in 2016, access to Android apps in the entire Google Play Store was introduced on supported Chrome OS devices. Reception was initially skeptical, with some observers arguing that a browser running on any operating system was functionally equivalent. As more Chrome OS machines have entered the market, the operating system is now seldom evaluated apart from the hardware that runs it.
Chrome OS is only available pre-installed on hardware from Google manufacturing partners, but there are unofficial methods that allow it to be installed in other equipment. An open source equivalent, Chromium OS, can be compiled from downloaded source code. Early on, Google provided design goals for Chrome OS, but has not otherwise released a technical description.
Google announced Chrome OS on July 7, 2009, describing it as an operating system in which both applications and user data reside in the cloud. To ascertain marketing requirements, the company relied on informal metrics, including monitoring the usage patterns of some 200 Chrome OS machines used by Google employees. Developers also noted their own usage patterns. Matthew Papakipos, former engineering director for the Chrome OS project, put three machines in his house and found himself logging in for brief sessions: to make a single search query or send a short email.
Chrome OS was initially intended for secondary devices like netbooks, not as a user's primary PC. While Chrome OS supports hard disk drives, Google has requested that its hardware partners use solid-state drives "for performance and reliability reasons" as well as the lower capacity requirements inherent in an operating system that accesses applications and most user data on remote servers. In November 2009 Matthew Papakipos, engineering director for the Chrome OS, claimed that the Chrome OS consumes one-sixtieth as much drive space as Windows 7. The recovery images Google provides for Chrome OS range between 1 and 3 GB.
On November 19, 2009, Google released Chrome OS's source code as the Chromium OS project. At a November 19, 2009, news conference, Sundar Pichai, at the time Google's vice president overseeing Chrome, demonstrated an early version of the operating system. He previewed a desktop which looked very similar to the Chrome browser, and in addition to the regular browser tabs, also had application tabs, which take less space and can be pinned for easier access. At the conference, the operating system booted up in seven seconds, a time Google said it would work to reduce. Additionally, Chris Kenyon, vice president of OEM services at Canonical Ltd, announced that Canonical was under contract to contribute engineering resources to the project with the intent to build on existing open source components and tools where feasible.
In 2010, Google released the unbranded Cr-48 Chromebook in a pilot program. The launch date for retail hardware featuring Chrome OS was delayed from late 2010 until the next year. On 11 May 2011, Google announced two Chromebooks from Acer and Samsung at Google I/O. The Samsung model was released on 15 June 2011, but the Acer was delayed until mid-July. In August 2011, Netflix announced official support for Chrome OS through its streaming service, allowing Chromebooks to watch streaming movies and TV shows via Netflix. At the time, other devices had to use Microsoft Silverlight to play videos from Netflix. Later in that same month, Citrix released a client application for Chrome OS, allowing Chromebooks to access Windows applications and desktops remotely. Dublin City University became the first educational institution in Europe to provide Chromebooks for its students when it announced an agreement with Google in September 2011.
By 2012, demand for Chromebooks had begun to grow, and Google announced a new range of devices, designed and manufactured by Samsung. In so doing, they also released the first Chromebox, the Samsung Series 3, which was Chrome OS's entrance into the world of desktop computers. Although they were faster than the previous range of devices, they were still underpowered compared to other desktops and laptops of the time, fitting in more closely with the Netbook market. Only months later, in October, Samsung and Google released a new Chromebook at a significantly lower price point ($250, compared to the previous Series 5 Chromebooks' $450). It was the first Chromebook to use an ARM processor, one from Samsung's Exynos line. In order to reduce the price, Google and Samsung also reduced the memory and screen resolution of the device. An advantage of using the ARM processor, however, was that the Chromebook didn't require a fan. Acer followed quickly after with the C7 Chromebook, priced even lower ($199), but containing an Intel Celeron processor. One notable way which Samsung reduced the cost of the C7 was to use a laptop hard disk rather than a solid state drive.
In April 2012, Google made the first update to Chrome OS's user interface since the operating system had launched, introducing a hardware-accelerated window manager called "Aura" along with a conventional taskbar. The additions marked a departure from the operating system's original concept of a single browser with tabs and gave Chrome OS the look and feel of a more conventional desktop operating system. "In a way, this almost feels as if Google is admitting defeat here", wrote Frederic Lardinois on TechCrunch. He argued that Google had traded its original version of simplicity for greater functionality. "That’s not necessarily a bad thing, though, and may just help Chrome OS gain more mainstream acceptance as new users will surely find it to be a more familiar experience." Lenovo and HP followed Samsung and Acer in manufacturing Chromebooks in early 2013 with their own models. Lenovo specifically targeted their Chromebook at students, headlining their press release with "Lenovo Introduces Rugged ThinkPad Chromebook for Schools".
When Google released Google Drive, they also included Drive integration in the next version of Chrome OS (version 20), released in July 2012. While Chrome OS had supported Flash since 2010, by the end of 2012 it had been fully sandboxed, preventing issues with Flash from affecting other parts of Chrome OS. This affected all versions of Chrome including Chrome OS.
Up to this point, Google had never made their own Chrome OS device. Instead, Chrome OS devices were much more similar to their Nexus line of Android phones, with each Chrome OS device being designed, manufactured, and marketed by third party manufacturers, but with Google controlling the software. However, in February 2013 this changed when Google released the Chromebook Pixel. The Chromebook Pixel was a departure from previous devices. Not only was it entirely Google-branded, but it contained an Intel i5 processor, a high-resolution (2,560x1,700) touchscreen display, and came at a price point more competitive with business laptops.
By the end of 2013, analysts were undecided on the future of Chrome OS. Although there had been articles predicting the demise of Chrome OS since 2009, Chrome OS device sales continued to increase substantially year-over-year. In mid 2014, Time Magazine published an article titled "Depending on Who's Counting, Chromebooks are Either an Enormous Hit or Totally Irrelevant", which detailed the differences in opinion. This controversy was further spurred by the fact that Intel seemed to decide Chrome OS was a beneficial market for it, holding their own Chrome OS events where they announced new Intel-based Chromebooks, Chromeboxes, and an all-in-one from LG called the Chromebase.
In March 2014, Google hosted a hacking contest aimed at computer security experts called "Pwnium". Similar to the Pwn2Own contest, they invited hackers from around the world to find exploits in Chrome OS, with prizes available for attacks. Two exploits were demonstrated there, and a third was demonstrated at that year's Pwn2Own competition. Google patched the issues within a week.
Material Design and App Runtime for Chrome
Although the Google Native Client has been available on Chrome OS since 2010, there originally were few Native Client apps available, and most Chrome OS apps were still web apps. However, in June 2014, Google announced at Google I/O that Chrome OS would both synchronise with Android phones to share notifications and begin to run Android apps, installed directly from the Google Play Store. This, along with the broadening selection of Chromebooks, provided an interesting future for Chrome OS.
At the same time, Google was also moving towards the then-new Material Design visual language for its products, which it would bring to its web products as well as Android Lollipop. One of the first Material Design items to come to Chrome OS was a new default wallpaper, though Google did release some screenshots of a Material Design experiment for Chrome OS that never made it into the stable version.
Chromebox for Meetings
In an attempt to expand its enterprise offerings, Google released the Chromebox for Meetings in February 2014. The Chromebox for Meetings is a kit for conference rooms containing a Chromebox, a camera, a unit containing both a noise-cancelling microphone and speakers, and a remote control. It supports Google Hangouts meetings, Vidyo video conferences, and conference calls from UberConference. Several partners announced Chromebox for Meetings models with Google, and in 2016 Google announced an all-in-one Chromebase for Meetings for smaller meeting rooms.
This section needs expansion with: more recent history (beyond February 2015). You can help by adding to it. (January 2019)
Laptops running Chrome OS are known collectively as "Chromebooks". The first was the CR-48, a reference hardware design that Google gave to testers and reviewers beginning in December 2010. Retail machines followed in May 2011. A year later, in May 2012, a desktop design marketed as a "Chromebox" was released by Samsung. In March 2015 a partnership with AOPEN was announced and the first commercial Chromebox was developed.
In early 2014, LG Electronics introduced the first device belonging to the new all-in-one form factor called "Chromebase". Chromebase devices are essentially Chromebox hardware inside a monitor with built-in camera, microphone and speakers.
The Chromebit is an HDMI dongle running Chrome OS. When placed in an HDMI slot on a television set or computer monitor, the device turns that display into a personal computer. The device was announced in March 2015 and shipped that November.
Chrome OS supports dual-monitor setups, on devices with a video-out port.
This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: This is the merger of two sections without further cleanup (January 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
In September 2014, Google launched App Runtime for Chrome (beta), which allowed certain ported Android applications to run on Chrome OS. Runtime was launched with four Android applications: Duolingo, Evernote, Sight Words, and Vine. In 2016, Google made the Google Play Store available for Chrome OS, making most Android apps available for supported Chrome OS devices.
Google announced in 2018 that Chrome OS would be getting support for desktop Linux apps. This capability was released to the stable channel with Chrome 69 in October 2018, but was still marked as beta.
Integrated media player, file manager
Google integrates a media player into both Chrome OS and the Chrome browser, enabling users to play back MP3s, view JPEGs, and handle other multimedia files while offline. It supports DRM videos.
Chrome OS also includes an integrated file manager, resembling those found on other operating systems, with the ability to display directories and the files they contain from both Google Drive and local storage, as well as to preview and manage file contents using a variety of Web applications, including Google Docs and Box. Since January 2015, Chrome OS can also integrate additional storage sources into the file manager, relying on installed extensions that use the File System Provider API.
Remote application access and virtual desktop access
In June 2010, Google software engineer Gary Kačmarčík wrote that Chrome OS will access remote applications through a technology unofficially called "Chromoting", which would resemble Microsoft's Remote Desktop Connection. The name has since been changed to "Chrome Remote Desktop", and is like "running an application via Remote Desktop Services or by first connecting to a host machine by using RDP or VNC". Initial roll-outs of Chrome OS laptops (Chromebooks) indicate an interest in enabling users to access virtual desktops.
At Google I/O 2014, a proof of concept showing Android applications, including Flipboard, running on Chrome OS was presented. In September 2014, Google introduced a beta version of the App Runtime for Chrome (ARC), which allows selected Android applications to be used on Chrome OS, using a Native Client-based environment that provides the platforms necessary to run Android software. Android applications do not require any modifications to run on Chrome OS, but may be modified to better support a mouse and keyboard environment. At its introduction, Chrome OS support was only available for selected Android applications.
In 2016, Google introduced the ability to run Android apps on supported Chrome OS devices, with access to the entire Google Play Store. The previous Native Client-based solution was dropped in favor of a container containing Android's frameworks and dependencies (initially based on Android 6.0), which allows Android apps to have direct access to the Chrome OS platform, and allow the OS to interact with Android contracts such as sharing. Engineering director Zelidrag Hornung explained that ARC had been scrapped due to its limitations, including its incompatibility with the Android Native Development Toolkit (NDK), and that it was unable to pass Google's own compatibility test suite.
Since 2013 it has been possible to run Linux applications in Chrome OS through the use of Crouton, a third-party set of scripts that allows access to a Linux distribution such as Ubuntu. However, in 2018 Google announced that desktop Linux apps were officially coming to Chrome OS. The main benefit claimed by Google of their official Linux application support is that it can run without enabling developer mode, keeping many of the security features of Chrome OS. It was noticed in the Chromium OS source code in early 2018. Early parts of Crostini were made available for the Google Pixelbook via the dev channel in February 2018 as part of Chrome OS version 66, and it was enabled by default via the beta channel for testing on a variety of chromebooks in August 2018 with version 69.
Google's project for supporting Linux applications in Chrome OS is called Crostini, named for the Italian bread-based starter, and as a pun on Crouton. Crostini runs a virtual machine through a virtual machine monitor called crosvm, which uses Linux's built-in KVM virtualization tool. Although Crosvm supports multiple virtual machines, the one used for running Linux apps, Termina, contains a basic Chrome OS kernel and userland utilities, in which it runs containers based on Linux containers (specifically LXD).
Chrome OS is built on top of the Linux kernel. Originally based on Ubuntu, its base was changed to Gentoo Linux in February 2010. In preliminary design documents for the Chromium OS open source project, Google described a three-tier architecture: firmware, browser and window manager, and system-level software and userland services.
- The firmware contributes to fast boot time by not probing for hardware, such as floppy disk drives, that are no longer common on computers, especially netbooks. The firmware also contributes to security by verifying each step in the boot process and incorporating system recovery.
- System-level software includes the Linux kernel that has been patched to improve boot performance. Userland software has been trimmed to essentials, with management by Upstart, which can launch services in parallel, re-spawn crashed jobs, and defer services in the interest of faster booting.
- The window manager handles user interaction with multiple client windows much like other X window managers.
In March 2010, Google software security engineer Will Drewry discussed Chrome OS security. Drewry described Chrome OS as a "hardened" operating system featuring auto-updating and sandbox features that will reduce malware exposure. He said that Chrome OS netbooks will be shipped with Trusted Platform Module (TPM), and include both a "trusted bootpath" and a physical switch under the battery compartment that actuates a developer mode. That mode drops some specialized security functions but increases developer flexibility. Drewry also emphasized that the open source nature of the operating system will contribute greatly to its security by allowing constant developer feedback.
At a December 2010 press conference, Google claimed that Chrome OS would be the most secure consumer operating system due in part to a verified boot ability, in which the initial boot code, stored in read-only memory, checks for system compromises.
In developer mode, a full-featured bash shell (which is supposed to be used for development purposes) can be opened via VT-2, and is also accessible using the crosh command
shell. To access full privileges in shell (e.g. sudo) a root password is requested. For some time the default was "chronos" in Chrome OS and "facepunch" in Chrome OS Vanilla and later the default was empty, and instructions on updating it were displayed at each login.
Chrome OS is partially developed under the open source Chromium OS project. As with other open source projects, developers can modify the code from Chromium OS and build their own versions, whereas Chrome OS code is only supported by Google and its partners and only runs on hardware designed for the purpose. Unlike Chromium OS, Chrome OS is automatically updated to the latest version.
Chrome OS on Windows
On Windows 8 exceptions allow the default desktop web browser to offer a variant that can run inside its full-screen "Metro" shell and access features such as the Share charm, without necessarily needing to be written with Windows Runtime. Chrome's "Windows 8 mode" was previously a tablet-optimized version of the standard Chrome interface. In October 2013, the mode was changed on Developer channel to offer a variant of the Chrome OS desktop.
Early in the project, Google provided publicly many details of the Chrome OS's design goals and direction, although the company has not followed up with a technical description of the completed operating system.
Design goals for Chrome OS's user interface included using minimal screen space by combining applications and standard Web pages into a single tab strip, rather than separating the two. Designers considered a reduced window management scheme that would operate only in full-screen mode. Secondary tasks would be handled with "panels": floating windows that dock to the bottom of the screen for tasks like chat and music players. Split screens were also under consideration for viewing two pieces of content side-by-side. Chrome OS would follow the Chrome browser's practice of leveraging HTML5's offline modes, background processing, and notifications. Designers proposed using search and pinned tabs as a way to quickly locate and access applications.
New window manager and graphics engine
On April 10, 2012, a new build of Chrome OS offered a choice between the original full-screen window interface and overlapping, re-sizable windows, such as found on Microsoft Windows and Apple's macOS. The feature was implemented through the Ash window manager, which runs atop the Aura hardware-accelerated graphics engine. The April 2012 upgrade also included the ability to display smaller, overlapping browser windows, each with its own translucent tabs, browser tabs that can be "torn" and dragged to new positions or merged with another tab strip, and a mouse-enabled shortcut list across the bottom of the screen. One icon on the task bar shows a list of installed applications and bookmarks. Writing in CNET, Stephen Shankland argued that with overlapping windows, "Google is anchoring itself into the past" as both iOS and Microsoft's Metro interface are largely or entirely full-screen. Even so, "Chrome OS already is different enough that it's best to preserve any familiarity that can be preserved".
Google Cloud Print is a Google service that helps any application on any device to print on supported printers. While the cloud provides virtually any connected device with information access, the task of "developing and maintaining print subsystems for every combination of hardware and operating system—from desktops to netbooks to mobile devices—simply isn't feasible." The cloud service requires installation of a piece of software called proxy, as part of the Chrome OS. The proxy registers the printer with the service, manages the print jobs, provides the printer driver functionality, and gives status alerts for each job.
In 2016, Google included "Native CUPS Support" in Chrome OS as an experimental feature that may eventually become an official feature. With CUPS support turned on, it becomes possible to use most USB printers even if they do not support Google Cloud Print.
Chrome OS was designed with the intention of storing user documents and files on remote servers. Both Chrome OS and the Chrome browser may introduce difficulties to end users when handling specific file types offline; for example, when opening an image or document residing on a local storage device, it may be unclear whether and which specific Web application should be automatically opened for viewing, or the handling should be performed by a traditional application acting as a preview utility. Matthew Papakipos, Chrome OS engineering director, noted in 2010 that Windows developers have faced the same fundamental problem: "Quicktime is fighting with Windows Media Player, which is fighting with Chrome.":3
Release channels and updates
Chrome OS uses the same release system as Google Chrome: there are three distinct channels: Stable, Beta, and Developer preview (called the "Dev" channel). The stable channel is updated with features and fixes that have been thoroughly tested in the Beta channel, and the Beta channel is updated approximately once a month with stable and complete features from the Developer channel. New ideas get tested in the Developer channel, which can be very unstable at times. A fourth canary channel was confirmed to exist by Google Developer Francois Beaufort and hacker Kenny Strawn, by entering the Chrome OS shell in developer mode, typing the command shell to access the bash shell, and finally entering the command update_engine_client -channel canary-channel -update. It is possible to return to verified boot mode after entering the canary channel, but the channel updater disappears and the only way to return to another channel is using the "powerwash" factory reset.
At its debut, Chrome OS was viewed as a competitor to Microsoft, both directly to Microsoft Windows and indirectly the company's word processing and spreadsheet applications—the latter through Chrome OS's reliance on cloud computing. But Chrome OS engineering director Matthew Papakipos argued that the two operating systems would not fully overlap in functionality because Chrome OS is intended for netbooks, which lack the computational power to run a resource-intensive program like Adobe Photoshop.
Some observers claimed that other operating systems already filled the niche that Chrome OS was aiming for, with the added advantage of supporting native applications in addition to a browser. Tony Bradley of PC World wrote in November 2009:
|“||We can already do most, if not all, of what Chrome OS promises to deliver. Using a Windows 7 or Linux-based netbook, users can simply not install anything but a web browser and connect to the vast array of Google products and other web-based services and applications. Netbooks have been successful at capturing the low-end PC market, and they provide a web-centric computing experience today. I am not sure why we should get excited that a year from now we'll be able to do the same thing, but locked into doing it from the fourth-place web browser.||”|
After this 2009 statement Chrome browser rose to become the number one browser used worldwide.
Relationship to Android
Google's offering of two open source operating systems, Android and Chrome OS, has drawn some criticism despite the similarity between this situation and that of Apple Inc's two operating systems, macOS and iOS. Steve Ballmer, Microsoft CEO at the time, accused Google of not being able to make up its mind. Steven Levy wrote that "the dissonance between the two systems was apparent" at Google I/O 2011. The event featured a daily press conference in which each team leader, Android's Andy Rubin and Chrome's Sundar Pichai, "unconvincingly tried to explain why the systems weren't competitive." Google co-founder Sergey Brin addressed the question by saying that owning two promising operating systems was "a problem that most companies would love to face". Brin suggested that the two operating systems "will likely converge over time." The speculation over convergence increased in March 2013 when Chrome OS chief Pichai replaced Rubin as the senior vice president in charge of Android, thereby putting Pichai in charge of both.
The relationship between Android and Chrome OS became more substantial at Google I/O 2014, where developers demonstrated native Android software running on Chrome OS through a Native Client based runtime. In October 2015, The Wall Street Journal reported that Chrome OS would be folded into Android so that a single OS would result by 2017. The resulting OS will be Android, but it will be expanded to run on laptops. Google responded that while the company has "been working on ways to bring together the best of both operating systems, there's no plan to phase out Chrome OS."
- Comparison of operating systems
- Timeline of operating systems
- Instant WebKiosk
- List of operating systems
- zram – a Linux kernel feature
- Pichai, Sundar (July 7, 2009). "Introducing the Google Chrome OS". Official Google Blog. Google, Inc. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- "Stable Channel Update for Chrome OS". March 5, 2019. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
- Cindy Bayless (March 20, 2019). "Beta Channel Update for Chrome OS". Retrieved March 21, 2019.
- Daniel Gagnon (March 13, 2019). "Dev Channel Update for Chrome OS". Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- "Kernel Design: Background, Upgrades". Retrieved September 7, 2011.
- Google. "Google Chrome OS Terms of Service". Retrieved September 5, 2012.
- "Kernel Design". The Chromium Projects.
- "Chromefy turns any PC into a Chromebook". liliputing.com. 2018-11-14. Retrieved 2018-11-27.
- "Chrome OS unofficial forks". quickfever.com. Retrieved 2018-12-20.
- Brodkin, Jon (June 28, 2010). "Google Chrome OS creator takes job at Facebook, announces switch on Twitter". Business Week. Retrieved June 29, 2010.
- Stokes, Jon (January 19, 2010). "Google talks Chrome OS, HTML5, and the future of software". Ars Technica. Retrieved January 23, 2010.
- "Linux commands". The New York Times.
- Womack, Brian (July 8, 2009). "Google to Challenge Microsoft With Operating System". Bloomberg. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
- "Developer FAQ". Retrieved December 12, 2009.
- Mearian, Lucas (November 19, 2009). "Google Chrome OS will not support hard-disk drives". Computerworld. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
- "Recover your Chromebook".
- Sengupta, Caesar (November 19, 2009). "Releasing the Chromium OS open source project". Official Google Blog. Google, Inc. Retrieved November 19, 2009.
- Yegulalp, Serdar (December 5, 2009). "Google Chrome OS Previewed". InformationWeek. Retrieved December 6, 2009.
- Rapoza, Jim (December 3, 2009). "REVIEW: Google Chrome OS Developer Edition Provides Intriguing Look at Web-Only Computing". eWeek.com. Retrieved December 4, 2009.
- Kenyon, Chris (November 2009). "Google Chrome OS and Canonical". Canonical Blog. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
- Casey Chan (2010-12-07). "Here's the Cr-48, The First Chrome OS Laptop You Can Never Buy". Gizmodo. Archived from the original on 2016-06-25. Retrieved 2019-01-09.
- "Cr-48 Chrome Notebook".
- "Google sets "late fall" release for Chrome". Reuters. June 2, 2010.
- Lawler, Richard (2011-05-11). "Google unveils Acer Chromebook: $349, 11.6-inches with 6.5-hour battery". Engadget. Retrieved 2019-01-09.
- Hollister, Sean (2011-05-11). "Official: Samsung reveals Chrome OS laptop -- the Series 5". Engadget. Retrieved 2019-01-09.
- Tsukayama, Hayley (2011-06-15). "Chromebook go on sale". Washington Post. Retrieved 2019-01-09.
- Reisinger, Don (2011-06-28). "Acer AC700 Chromebook available, shipping soon". CNet.
- Richard Lawler (2011-08-09). "Netflix Watch Instantly streaming now works on ChromeOS, when it's working". Engadget.
- "Citrix app opens Windows for Chromebook owners". Engadget. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
- John Kennedy (2011-09-13). "Dublin City University's five-year plan – Chromebook deal with Google".
- Leo Kelion (2012-05-29). "Google Chrome OS computers updated with faster processors".
- Nathan Olivarez-Giles (2012-10-18). "Google Debuts $250 Chromebook". Wired.
- Myriam Joire (2012-11-26). "Acer C7 Chromebook review: Chrome OS on the cheap, but at what cost?".
- Lardinois, Frederic (April 9, 2012). "Google's Chrome OS Will Soon Look More Like Windows Than A Browser". Techcrunch. Retrieved June 2, 2013.
- Sean Hollister (2013-02-04). "HP's first Chromebook arrives, offers a large screen and a small battery for $329.99".
- "Lenovo Introduces Rugged ThinkPad Chromebook for Schools". 2013-01-17. Archived from the original on 2013-02-05.
- Ivan Zhekov (2013-01-18). "Lenovo unveils the sturdy ThinkPad X131e Chromebook for students".
- "Stable Channel Updates for Chromebooks". 2012-07-11.
- Priya Ganapati (2010-03-31). "Google fires at Apple, Integrates Flash into Chrome Browser". Wired.
- Emil Protalinski (2012-11-13). "Google declares Flash is now 'fully sandboxed' in Chrome for Windows, Mac, Linux and Chrome OS". TheNextWeb.
- "Google unveils its first touchscreen Chromebook Pixel". 2013-02-21.
- "The Chromebook Pixel, for what's next". 2013-02-21.
- David Card (2010-12-13). "Google's Chrome OS: Dead Before Arrival?".
- Scott Raymond (2011-08-30). "Chromeboox are dead, they just don't know it yet".
- Brad Chacos (2013-02-04). "What's with all the Chromebooks?".
- Jay Yarow (2010-12-14). "Google Will Kill Chrome OS Next Year, Predicts Gmail Creator Paul Buchheit".
- Adam Maguire (2009-11-26). "Opinion: Will Google's Chrome OS be dead on arrival?".
- Harry McCracken (2014-05-07). "Depending on Who's Counting, Chromebooks are Either an Enormous Hit or Totally Irrelevant". Time.
- Sebastian Anthony (2014-05-07). "Intel decides that Chromebooks, for some reason, are key to beating ARM in the mobile market".
- Carly Page (2014-04-09). "Google jumps on Windows XP's demise with Chromebook for business offer". The Inquirer.
- Steven J Vaughan-Nichols (2014-03-18). "Chrome OS security holes found, patched".
- Cade Metz (2010-05-13). "Google heats up native code for Chrome OS". The Register.
- Alan Henry (2014-06-25). "Chrome OS will Run Android Apps Natively, Sync with Android Devices". LifeHacker.
- Dan Ackerman (2014-03-03). "Chromebooks compared: New and upcoming Chrome OS laptops". Cnet.
- Matt Brian (2014-06-25). "Google's new 'Material Design' UI coming to Android, Chrome OS and the web". Engadget.
- Tom Dawson (2014-10-28). "Chrome OS to Get New Default Wallpaper Full of Material Design".
- "Google shares sneak peek of Material Design applied to Chrome OS". 2014-07-18.
- Konrad Krawczyk (2014-02-06). "Google reveals $1,000 Asus Chromebox for business videoconferencing".
- Caesar Sengupta (2014-02-06). "Chromebox, now for simpler and better meetings".
- "Chromebase for meetings makes video-conferencing personal and simple". 2016-03-31.
- "AOPEN collaborating with Google on new retail technology". AOPEN. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
- Martonik, Andrew (November 17, 2015). "Google and ASUS officially launch the Chromebit, available now for just $85". Android Central. Retrieved 2016-01-30.
- Vaughan-Nichols, Steven (June 18, 2012). "It's 2016, and Chrome OS is ascendant". Computerworld. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
- Enderle, Rob (May 12, 2011). "Why Google's Chromebooks are born to lose". Digital Trends. Retrieved September 7, 2013.
- "Packaged Apps - Google Chrome". developer.chrome.com. Retrieved 2016-01-26.
- "What Are Chrome Apps? - Google Chrome". developer.chrome.com. Retrieved 2016-01-26.
- "ARC Welder".
Package Android APKs for ARC (App Runtime for Chrome)
- Amadeo, Ron (September 11, 2014). "Chrome OS can now run Android apps, no porting required". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2016-01-26.
- Klosowski, Thorin (2016-09-22). "The Google Play Store Is Now Available in Chrome OS, Brings Android Apps to Your Chromebook". LifeHacker.
- Protalinski, Emil (2018-05-08). "Chrome OS is getting Linux app support". VentureBeat.
- Raymond, Phillip (2018-10-15). "Chrome OS Stable Channel Gets Linux Apps".
- Samson, Ted (May 16, 2013). "Google entices Chrome OS developers with prospect of native-like apps". InfoWorld. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
- "What Are Packaged Apps?". Chrome apps stable. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
- "For Your Desktop". Chrome Web Store. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
- Metz, Cade (June 9, 2010). "Google morphs Chrome OS into netbook thin client". The Register. Retrieved June 14, 2010.
- Sneddon, Joey-Elijah (February 24, 2014). "Chrome OS 33 Hits Stable Channel, Adds New 'First Run' Tour, Contact Search". omgchrome. Retrieved March 7, 2014.[self-published source]
- Rosenblatt, Seth (August 10, 1011). "Chrome OS goes offline, gets file manager". CNET download.com. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
- "Stable Channel Update". Chrome Releases.
- Mathews, Lee (August 13, 2010). "Google Chrome's Remoting feature shows up in Chrome with enterprise implications". Archived from the original on 2011-02-07. Retrieved August 22, 2010.
- Claburn, Thomas. "Google Pleased With Chromebook Sales". InformationWeek.
- Thibodeau, Patrick. "Orlando tries out 600 Chromebooks, The Chrome OS-based laptops may fit into city's cloud strategy". Computerworld.
- "Chrome OS can now run Android apps, no porting required". Ars Technica. September 11, 2014. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
- "The Play Store comes to Chrome OS, but not the way we were expecting". Ars Technica. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- "All Chromebooks debuting in 2017 and beyond will run Android apps". Ars Technica. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- Whitson Gordon (2013-05-24). "How to Install Linux on a Chromebook and Unlock Its Full Potential".
- "You can now run Linux apps on Chrome OS".
- Zheng, Tim (23 January 2018). "Add Crostini experiment to field trial testing". chromium-review.googlesource.com. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- "Crostini: A First Look At The New Linux Terminal For Chrome OS". chromeunboxed.com. February 26, 2018. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
- "Google Chrome OS – bullet proof?". Infosecurity. 6 (5): 6. July 2009. doi:10.1016/s1754-4548(09)70096-8. ISSN 1754-4548.
- "Linux apps on Chrome OS - an overview of its biggest feature since Android apps". xda-developers. 2018-04-25. Retrieved 2018-09-04.
- "Linux Apps Land On Beta Channel For A Lot Of Chromebooks". chromeunboxed.com. Retrieved 2018-09-04.
- "Running Custom Containers Under Chrome OS".
- Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols (2013-03-06). "The secret origins of Google's Chrome OS". ZDNet.
- "Security Overview: Chromium OS design documents". Retrieved November 25, 2009.
- Messmer, Ellen (March 2010). "Google sheds light on Chrome OS Netbook security". Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- Paul, Ryan (December 2010). "Google demos Chrome OS, launches pilot program". Ars Technica. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- "Crosh -- The Chromium OS shell".
- "Samsung Series 5 Chromebook". The Chromium Projects. Retrieved June 5, 2015.
- "Shell Style Guidelines". The Chromium Projects. Retrieved June 5, 2015.
When writing code that is used on developer systems or dev/test Chromium OS images, always use bash. For scripts that are used on the release Chromium OS image, you should be using POSIX shell.
- "Poking around your Chrome OS Notebook". The Chromium Projects. Retrieved February 6, 2011.
- "Boot and Install Chromium OS on Notebook". Keyables.
- "Chromium OS". The Chromium Project. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
- "Windows 8 browsers: the only Metro apps to get desktop power". TechRadar. Future Publishing. Retrieved November 13, 2012.
- Newman, Jared. "Google Chrome Gets Early Metro-Style App for Windows 8". PCWorld. IDG. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
- "Mozilla previews 'Metro'-ized Firefox for Windows 8". Computerworld. IDG. Retrieved November 13, 2012.
- "Firefox for Windows 8 enters Aurora channel with touch and gesture support". Engadget. Retrieved September 21, 2013.
- "Google is building Chrome OS straight into Windows 8". The Verge. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
- "The Chromium Projects: Chrome OS". Retrieved July 2, 2011.
- "The Chromium Projects: User Experience". Retrieved November 21, 2009.
- Stephen Shankland (April 10, 2012). "Google gives Chrome OS a less alienating interface". CNET.
- Caleb Garling (April 10, 2012). "Google Chrome OS Busts Out Of Browser With New Interface". Wired.
- Paul, Ryan (April 16, 2012). "Hands-on: getting work done with Google's new Aura interface for Chrome OS". Ars Technica. Retrieved April 17, 2012.
- Jazayeri, Mike (April 15, 2010). "A New Approach to Printing". The Chromium Blog. Google Inc. Retrieved April 16, 2010.
- Heater, Brian (April 16, 2010). "Google Talks Cloud-Based Printing for Chrome OS". App Scout. Retrieved April 16, 2010.
- Whitney, Lance. "Google moving closer to Chrome OS printing". CNET News. Retrieved April 17, 2010.
- "b793195a8a91fa9a17eaf4af0fa21fed4da4d9cc - chromium/src - Git at Google". Retrieved 9 March 2019.
- "Issue 2117713002: Print directly to CUPS using the IPP APIs - Code Review". codereview.chromium.org. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
- Mark Larson (January 8, 2009). "Google Chrome Release Channels". Retrieved January 9, 2009.
- Mark Larson (January 8, 2009). "Dev update: New WebKit version, new features, and a new Dev channel". Retrieved January 9, 2009.
- Beaufort, François (January 3, 2014). "We all agree that Dev Channel is great to test out new…". Google+. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
- Keegan, Victor (July 10, 2009). "Can Chrome steal Microsoft's shine?". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved July 11, 2009.
- Bertolucci, Jeff (July 10, 2009). "Google, Microsoft Invade Enemy Territory: Who Wins?". PC World. Retrieved July 11, 2009.
- Bradley, Tony (April 2010). "Five Reasons the Google Chrome OS will Flop". Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- "OS Statistics". w3schools.com. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
- "PC Platform is Evolving, Not Dying: Chromebooks and Ultraportable PCs to Gain Volume Market Share in 2016" (Press release). 9 March 2016.
- Dignan, Larry (November 23, 2009). "Admob: Droid and Android army make big browsing splash". ZDNet. Retrieved December 1, 2009.
- Patel, Nilay (July 14, 2009). "Steve Ballmer calls Chrome OS "highly interesting," says Google "can't make up their mind"". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved November 28, 2009.
- Levy, Steven (June 7, 2011). "Jobs to PC: 'You're Busted!' And Other Notes From The OS Wars". Wired. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- Krazit, Tom (November 20, 2009). "Brin: Google's OSes likely to converge". CNET News. Retrieved November 28, 2009.
- Olivarez-Giles, Nathan (March 13, 2013). "Google Replaces Android Boss Andy Rubin With Chrome's Sundar Pichai". Wired. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
- Bohn, Dieter (June 25, 2014). "Native Android apps are coming to Chrome OS". The Verge. Retrieved 2014-06-25.
- Alistair Barr (October 30, 2015). "Alphabet's Google to Fold Chrome Operating System Into Android". WSJ. Retrieved November 14, 2015.
- Sam Tran. "Chrome OS Will Be Merged Into Android - OMG! Chrome!". OMG! Chrome!. Retrieved November 14, 2015.
- Lockheimer, Hiroshi (November 2, 2015). "Chrome OS is here to stay". Retrieved November 27, 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chrome OS.|