1993–94 Australian region cyclone season

1993–94 Australian region cyclone season
1993-1994 Australian cyclone season summary.jpg
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formed14 December 1993
Last system dissipated1 May 1994
Strongest storm
NameTheodore
 • Maximum winds200 km/h (125 mph)
(10-minute sustained)
 • Lowest pressure910 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Tropical lows14
Tropical cyclones12
Severe tropical cyclones7
Total fatalities22
Total damageUnknown
Related articles
Australian region tropical cyclone seasons
1991–92, 1992–93, 1993–94, 1994–95, 1995–96

The 1993–94 Australian region cyclone season was a slightly above average Australian cyclone season. It was also an event in the ongoing cycle of tropical cyclone formation. It ran from 1 November 1993 to 30 April 1994. The regional tropical cyclone operational plan also defines a tropical cyclone year separately from a tropical cyclone season, and the "tropical cyclone year" ran from 1 July 1993 to 30 June 1994.

Tropical cyclones in this area were monitored by four Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs): the Australian Bureau of Meteorology in Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane; and TCWC Port Moresby in Papua New Guinea.

Seasonal Summary

Cyclone RewaTropical cyclone scales#Comparisons across basins

Systems

Severe Tropical Cyclone Naomi

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Naomi dec 16 1993 2317Z.jpg Naomi 1993 track.png
Duration14 December – 18 December
Peak intensity140 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  960 hPa (mbar)

Naomi was the first cyclone of the 1993/94 season. Forming early on 15 December 1993, the storm moved south and strengthened into a Category 3 before making landfall.[1] There was moderate damage and a fishing boat was disabled during the storm. There were no deaths.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Rewa

Category 5 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Rewa jan 16 1994 0555Z.jpg Rewa 1993 track.png
Duration26 December – 21 January
Peak intensity205 km/h (125 mph) (10-min)  920 hPa (mbar)

Cyclone Rewa formed on 26 December 1993. It looped around the Coral Sea for almost a month, crossed New Caledonia and the Solomon Island, and dissipated on 21 January. Rewa was the longest-lived South Pacific tropical cyclone on record, lasting 25 days, from 26 December to 21 January.

Tropical Cyclone Oscar

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg Oscar 1993 track.png
Duration28 December – 9 January
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  995 hPa (mbar)

Cyclone Oscar was a weak system, and only barely reached cyclone strength on 3 January 1994 for about a 12-hour period. It moved on a generally west-southwest course parallel to the Kimberley and Pilbara coasts.[2]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Pearl-Farah

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 2 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Farah Jan 18 1994 1036Z.png Pearl 1994 track.png
Duration10 January – 21 January
Peak intensity155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min)  960 hPa (mbar)

On 11 January, a tropical low formed northwest of Broome, Western Australia. It was named Pearl a few hours later by the Bureau of Meteorology.[3] The cyclone continued westward and reached a peak intensity of 155 km/h (100 mph).[3] As the system moved west of 90°E, MFR took over warning responsibility on 18 January and renamed the cyclone Farah.[4] At that time, MFR estimated winds of about 120 km/h (75 mph).[5] After having moved westward due to a ridge to the south, Farah turned to the south upon entering the basin due to an approaching trough, which previously absorbed Edmea. High wind shear caused rapid weakening, and by 19 January, there was little remaining convection. The next day, Farah weakened to tropical depression status and turned to the southeast. The ridge built behind the trough, causing the depression to stall and drift northward, and by 22 February, Farah dissipated.[4]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Quenton

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg Quenton 1994 track.png
Duration22 January – 29 January
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  955 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Cyclone Quenton began as a tropical low to the east of Christmas Island on 22 January 1994. The low moved slowly west, then on 25 January intensified to cyclone strength and moved southward across the Indian Ocean. By early on the 29th the cyclone had dissipated.[2]

Tropical Cyclone Sadie

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg Sadie 1994 track.png
Duration29 January – 31 January
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  985 hPa (mbar)

Early on 29 January, the BoM reported that a tropical low had developed within the monsoon trough about 50 km (30 mi) to the north of the Gove Peninsula in the Northern Territory.[6][7] During that day the low rapidly developed further as it moved south-eastwards, before early on 29 January TCWC Brisbane reported that the low had developed into a category 1 tropical cyclone and named it Sadie as the system started to move southwards.[6] Later that day the JTWC initiated advisories on Cyclone Sadie and designated it as Tropical Cyclone 14P, while the system started to move towards the east and was near its peak 1-minute maximum sustained windspeeds of 85 km/h (50 mph).[6][8][9] Early the next day Cyclone Sadie made landfall to the north of near Normanton, after TCWC Brisbane had reported that the system had peaked with 10-minute maximum sustained winds of 85 km/h (50 mph).[6][7] After making landfall, the system moved towards the south-southeast before weakening and degenerating into a tropical low/rain depression later that day.[6]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Theodore

Category 5 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Theodore Feb 26 1994 0556Z.png Theodore 1994 track.png
Duration22 February – 28 February
Peak intensity215 km/h (130 mph) (10-min)  910 hPa (mbar)

Severe Tropical Cyclone Theodore existed from 22 to 28 February.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Sharon

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Sharon Mar 15 1994 0913Z.png Sharon Aus 1994 track.png
Duration12 March – 22 March
Peak intensity195 km/h (120 mph) (10-min)  930 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Cyclone Sharon was the most intense cyclone in the Western Australian region during the 1993/94 season. It formed about 1100 km north of Northwest Cape on 12 March 1994, then rapidly intensified during the 14th while moving on a south-southwest path towards the west Pilbara coast. During the 16th the cyclone rapidly weakened due to movement into a region of strong westerly wind shear. Cyclone warnings were issued for the west Pilbara and upper west coast on the 16th but were cancelled on the morning of the 17th Continued shearing and subsequent movement over cooler waters weakened the storm to below cyclone strength by the morning of the 18th.[2]

Tropical Cyclone Tim

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg Tim Aus 1994 track.png
Duration28 March – 3 April
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  995 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Cyclone Tim was a very small weak system that moved on a generally westward path from south of Sumatra to the Cocos Islands from 28 March to 3 April 1994. It passed about 100 km to the south of Christmas Island but its effects, other than a wind shift, were barely recognizable on the Island.[2]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Vivienne

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg Vivienne 1994 track.png
Duration5 April – 13 April
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  955 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Cyclone Vivienne formed from a tropical low that had moved westward across the Timor Sea. It intensified rapidly during the afternoon and night of 5 April 1994, reaching maximum intensity on 8 April when it was located 550 km to the north-northwest of Broome. Its development from here on was hampered by vertical wind shear and Vivienne moved on a generally west-southwest path parallel to, but well offshore from, the Western Australian coastline. It dissipated on 13 April and no watches or warnings were issued.[2]

Tropical Depression 29P

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Tropical Cyclone 29P 1993-94.png 29P 1994 track.png
Duration24 April – 25 April
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (1-min)  1000 hPa (mbar)

On 20 April, the JTWC started to monitor an area of low pressure that located over the Solomon Islands about 155 km (95 mi) to the north of Honiara.[10] During that day the disturbance moved towards the southeast and passed over several of the Solomon Islands, before emerging into the Australian basin.[10] Over the next couple of days the disturbance gradually developed further while moving towards the southwest before re-curving and moving southeastwards.[10] On 24 April, as it moved back into the South Pacific basin, the JTWC initiated advisories on the disturbance, designating it as Tropical Cyclone 29P, with peak windspeeds equivalent to a tropical depression.[10][11] As the system was classified, it recurved again and started to move slowly towards the northwest, and started to feel the effects of a high amount of vertical windshear.[10][11] As a result of the windshear, the center became exposed and displaced from the deep convection before the JTWC issued their final advisory on 25 April as 29P weakened into an area of low pressure, before dissipating later that day about 600 km (375 mi) to the southwest of Honiara.[10][11]

Tropical Cyclone Willy

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg Willy 1994 track.png
Duration26 April – 1 May
Peak intensity95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  985 hPa (mbar)

Willy was a Category 1 cyclone lasting from 26 April to 1 May 1994 that passed about 80 km west of the Cocos Islands.[2]

Other systems

During 23 March, a weak tropical low developed within the South Pacific Convergence Zone near Papua New Guinea's Louisiade Archipelago, within an area of favourable surface and upper air conditions for further development.[6][12] Over the next day the system moved eastwards and gradually developed further, before TCWC Port Moresby reported that the system had developed into a category 1 tropical cyclone on the Australian scale and named it Usha during the next day as it moved out of the Australian region.[6][12][13]

Season effects

Name Dates Peak intensity Areas affected Damages
(AU$)
Damages
(US$)
Deaths
Category Wind speed
(km/h (mph))
Pressure
(hPa)
Naomi 14 – 18 December Category 3 severe tropical cyclone 140 km/h (85 mph) 960 hPa (28.34 inHg) Western Australia Minimal Minimal 0
Rewa 26 December – 23 January Category 5 severe tropical cyclone 205 km/h (125 mph) 920 hPa, (27.17 inHg) Melanesia, Eastern Australia, New Zealand Unknown Unknown 22
Oscar 28 December – 9 January Category 1 tropical cyclone 65 km/h (40 mph) 995 hPa (29.38 inHg) Northern Territory, Western Australia None None None
Pearl-Farah 10 – 21 January Category 3 severe tropical cyclone 120 km/h (75 mph) 960 hPa (28.34 inHg) Western Australia None None None
Quenton 22 – 29 January Category 3 severe tropical cyclone 150 km/h (90 mph) 955 hPa (28.20 inHg) None None None None
Sadie 29 - 31 January Category 1 tropical cyclone 85 km/h (50 mph) 985 hPa (29.08 inHg) Northern Territory, Queensland None None None
Tropical Low 17–22 February Tropical Low Unknown Unknown None None None None
Theodore 22 – 28 February Category 5 severe tropical cyclone 215 km/h (130 mph) 910 hPa (26.87 inHg) Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, New Caledonia Unknown Unknown 1
Sharon 12 – 22 March Category 4 severe tropical cyclone 190 km/h (115 mph) 930 hPa (27.46 inHg) Western Australia None None None
Usha 24 March Category 1 tropical cyclone 65 km/h (40 mph) 995 hPa (29.39 inHg) Solomon Islands
Tim 28 March – 3 April Category 1 tropical cyclone 65 km/h (40 mph) 995 hPa (29.38 inHg) None None None None
Vivienne 5 – 13 April Category 3 severe tropical cyclone 150 km/h (90 mph) 955 hPa (28.20 inHg) None None None None
29P 24 – 25 April Tropical Depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) Solomon Islands None None None
Willy 26 April – 2 May 1994 Category 1 tropical cyclone 85 km/h (55 mph) 985 hPa (29.09 inHg) Cocos Islands None None [14]
Season aggregates
14 systems 14 December - 1 May 205 km/h (125 mph) 920 hPa, (27.17 inHg) Minor 22


See also

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ a b c d e f [2]
  3. ^ a b "Severe Tropical Cyclone Pearl" (PDF). Perth Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  4. ^ a b Guy Le Goff (1994). 1993-1994 Cyclone Season in the South-West Indian Ocean. RSMC La Reunion (Report). Météo-France. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
  5. ^ Kenneth R. Knapp; Michael C. Kruk; David H. Levinson; Howard J. Diamond; Charles J. Neumann (2010). 1994 Farah:Pearl:Pearl_Farah (1994010S17124). The International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS): Unifying tropical cyclone best track data (Report). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. Archived from the original on 16 February 2016. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Hanstrum, B.N.; Smith K.J.; Bate P.W. (2 June 1996). "The South Pacific and Southeast Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone Season 1993–94" (PDF). Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal. Australian Bureau of Meteorology (45): 137–147. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
  7. ^ a b Queensland Regional Office (February 1994). "Coastal Rivers Flood, Northern Queensland February 1994" (PDF). Australian Bureau of Meteorology. p. 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
  8. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center; Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center (1995). "1994 Annual Tropical Cyclone Report" (PDF). United States Navy, United States Air Force. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
  9. ^ Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center, Joint Typhoon Warning Center (17 December 2002). "JTWC Tropical Cyclone 14P (Sadie) Best Track Analysis". United States Navy, United States Air Force. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Unattributed (21 May 2001). "Tropical Cyclone 29P Best Track Analysis". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. United States Navy. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
  11. ^ a b c Roth, David (12 April 1994). "Weekly Tropical Cyclone Summary #140 (April 3 – 10, 1994)". Retrieved 12 August 2011.
  12. ^ a b Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Detachment; National Climatic Data Center (21 May 1996). Tropical Cyclone Usha, 22-29 March, 1994 (Global tropical/extratropical cyclone climatic atlas). Indiana University. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
  13. ^ MetService (22 May 2009). "TCWC Wellington Best Track Data 1967–2006". International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship.[permanent dead link]
  14. ^ Tropical Cyclone Willy, 28 April – 2 May 1994 (PDF) (Report). Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 May 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2017.

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