1984–85 Australian region cyclone season

1984–85 Australian region cyclone season
1984-1985 Australian cyclone season summary.jpg
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formed3 December 1984
Last system dissipated15 April 1985
Strongest storm
NameKristy
 • Maximum winds220 km/h (140 mph)
(10-minute sustained)
 • Lowest pressure925 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Tropical lows20
Tropical cyclones18
Severe tropical cyclones10
Total fatalities0
Total damage$3.5 million (1985 USD)
Related articles
Australian region tropical cyclone seasons
1982–83, 1983–84, 1984–85, 1985–86, 1986–87

The 1984–85 Australian region cyclone season was one of the most active seasons on record. It officially started on 1 November 1984, and officially ended on 30 April 1985.

Seasonal summary

Cyclone NigelTropical cyclone scales#Comparisons across basins

Systems

Severe Tropical Cyclone Emma

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Emma dec 10 1984 0932Z.jpg Emma 1984 track.png
Duration3 December – 13 December
Peak intensity120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min)  967 hPa (mbar)

A Category 3 cyclone, Emma struck Western Australia on December 12, 1984, as a Category 1 cyclone.[1]

Tropical Storm 04S

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
HSK0485 dec 12 1984 0725Z.jpg 04S 1984 track.png
DurationDecember 8 – December 13
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (1-min)  996 hPa (mbar)

Due to its minimal intensity, 04S was designated only as a tropical storm strength cyclone by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC). The storm remained unnamed by the warning center in Darwin.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Frank

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 2 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Frank dec 24 1984 0817Z.jpg Frank 1984 track.png
DurationDecember 19 – December 28
Peak intensity155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min)  950 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Cyclone Frank was a significant tropical cyclone which formed off the western coast of Australia. It peaked as a Category 1 storm on the Saffir–Simpson scale according to the JTWC. Perth assessed it as a category 3 on the Australian scale. After it turned to the south-east on 25 December, it made landfall as a Category 2 two days later near Port Hedland, Western Australia.

Tropical Cyclone Monica

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Monica dec 28 1984 0544Z.jpg Monica 1984 track.png
DurationDecember 25 – December 28
Peak intensity100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  985 hPa (mbar)

Monica peaked as a category 2 storm, tracking roughly south-eastward, passing into the South Pacific basin on December 28.

Tropical Cyclone Nigel

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Nigel Jan 19 1985 0310Z.png Nigel 1985 track.png
DurationJanuary 14 – January 16
Peak intensity110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min)  996 hPa (mbar)

The precursor low to Cyclone Nigel formed as an ill-defined low, within the intertropical convergence zone near the Cape York Peninsula during January 1985.[2] Over the next several days the system gradually moved eastwards into the Coral Sea, before the BoM reported that a recognizable circulation had developed during January 14.[2] Over the next two days the low moved eastwards and slowly developed further, before the JTWC initiated advisories on the system and designated it as Tropical Cyclone 13P early on January 16.[2][3] Later that day the BoM named the system Nigel as it became equivalent to a modern-day category 1 tropical cyclone on the Australian tropical cyclone intensity scale and moved out of the Australian region into the South Pacific basin.[2]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Odette

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg Odette 1985 track.png
DurationJanuary 16 – January 19
Peak intensity185 km/h (115 mph) (10-min)  930 hPa (mbar)

Odette was a powerful cyclone. It lasted for 4 days.

Tropical Cyclone Gertie

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg Gertie 1985 track.png
DurationJanuary 26 – February 3
Peak intensity110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min)  973 hPa (mbar)

Gertie made landfall in Western Australia before dissipating.

Tropical Low 18P

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg 
DurationFebruary 2 – February 6
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  996 hPa (mbar)

This system remained weak.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Hubert

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 2 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg Hubert 1985 track.png
DurationFebruary 10 – February 19
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  954 hPa (mbar)

Hubert had major differences in peak intensity from BOM and JTWC, but did not touch land.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Isobel

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg Isobel 1985 track.png
DurationFebruary 11 – February 22
Peak intensity140 km/h (85 mph) (10-min)  960 hPa (mbar)

Isobel failed to affect land.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Jacob

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg Jacob 1985 track.png
DurationFebruary 15 – February 28
Peak intensity140 km/h (85 mph) (10-min)  950 hPa (mbar)

Jacob was a Category 4 system on the Australian scale.

Tropical Depression 24S

Tropical depression (MFR)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg 
DurationFebruary 18 – February 21
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  996 hPa (mbar)

This depression failed to intensify.

Tropical Cyclone Pierre

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg Pierre 1985 track.png
DurationFebruary 18 – February 24
Peak intensity95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  986 hPa (mbar)

Pierre brushed Queensland.

Tropical Cyclone Rebecca

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg Rebecca 1985 track.png
DurationFebruary 20 – February 23
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  994 hPa (mbar)

Rebecca made landfall in Queensland on February 22, 1985, as a Category 1 storm.[4]

Tropical Cyclone Kirsty

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Kirsty 1985-03-09 0900Z.jpg Kirsty 1985 track.png
DurationMarch 1 – March 7
Peak intensity95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  978 hPa (mbar)

Although powerful, Kirsty failed to affect land.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Lindsay

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Lindsay Mar 9 1985 0616Z.png Lindsay 1985 track.png
Duration6 March – 11 March
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  950 hPa (mbar)

Cyclone Lindsay formed on March 6, 1985. The storm moved south-southeast reaching Category 3 status before making landfall near Broome, Western Australia.[5]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Sandy

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Sandy Mar 24 1985 0517Z.png Sandy 1985 track.png
Duration19 March – 3 April
Peak intensity195 km/h (120 mph) (10-min)  953 hPa (mbar)

Sandy formed on March 19 in the Gulf of Carpentaria and strengthened rapidly into a Category 4 cyclone, before it made landfall near Sir Edward Pellew Group of Islands as a Category 2 cyclone on March 24. Over the next days, Sandy moved into the Indian Ocean and dissipated on April 3.

Similar to Cyclone Kathy, the storm was not as intense as Kathy. Two trawlers were devastated by Sandy, where swells of 12 m (39 ft) were measured. Storm surges were measured at 3 to 3.5 m (9.8 to 11.5 ft) at Centre Island. Flooding was extensive along the southern gulf coast. A total of 860 mm (35 in) of rain recorded in the island during a four-day time span.[6]

Tropical Cyclone Tanya

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Tanya Mar 29 1985 0423Z.png Tanya 1985 track.png
DurationMarch 27 – April 4
Peak intensity100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  982 hPa (mbar)

Tanya hit Australia as a tropical cyclone.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Margot

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Margot Apr 15 1985 0300Z.png Margot 1985 track.png
Duration11 April – 21 April
Peak intensity155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min)  942 hPa (mbar)

Cyclone Margot was a tropical cyclone that stayed out to sea during its entire duration. It was first identified on April 10, off the coast of Sunda Strait. Margot then traveled to the southwest during April 12, gradually intensifying to a tropical cyclone. In the noon hours of April 13, it began to move to the southeast, under the influence of an intense high pressure area to the south. The cyclone reached a peak intensity on April 14, as a category three cyclone using the Australian scale, with winds of 155 km/h (95 mph). This intensity was based on satellite estimates, but the strongest report was from a ship eighteen hours earlier. After peak intensity Margot gradually weakened up until the 19, when it briefly underwent intensification, and turned west. This was short lived however, as dry, easterly low-level winds and wind shear began to influence the cyclone. Margot began to rapidly weaken and move in an easterly direction on April 20. On the 21 Margot had become a remnant low after completing a figure-eight path. On the 25 the remnant low was absorbed by a broad low pressure system located in the northeast Indian Ocean.[7]

Tropical Cyclone Gretel

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Gretel Apr 12 1985 0517Z.png Gretel 1985 track.png
DurationApril 11 – April 14
Peak intensity95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  984 hPa (mbar)

Cyclone Gretel was a tropical cyclone that formed in the Arafura Sea late on April 12, 1985, just east of Croker Island, off the Northern Territory coast. Moving in a west-southwest direction, it crossed the Cobourg Peninsula into the Van Diemen Gulf, where it intensified to Category 2 and reached its lowest pressure of 984 hPa. Moving south-west, the eye of the storm passed over Darwin, Australia, early on April 14, causing extensive tree damage and flooding to the area but no reported loss of life. It continued moving in a south-southwest direction, weakening to a low pressure system near the Victoria River mouth late that evening.[8] The total estimated damages was $3.5 million.[9]

See also

  • Atlantic hurricane seasons: 1984, 1985,
  • Eastern Pacific hurricane seasons: 1984, 1985
  • Western Pacific typhoon seasons: 1984, 1985
  • North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons: 1984, 1985

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ a b c d Kuuse J (1985). "The Australian tropical cyclone season 1984–85" (PDF). Australian Meteorological Magazine. Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 33: 133–136. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 23, 2014. Retrieved July 23, 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  3. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Annual Tropical Cyclone Report: 1985 (PDF) (Report). 33. United States Navy, United States Airforce. pp. 138, 246. Retrieved April 23, 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ [3]
  6. ^ "Severe Tropical Cyclone Sandy". Bureau of Meteorology. 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2012. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  7. ^ Queensland Regional Office/Brisbane tropical cyclone warning centre. Severe Tropical Cyclone Margot (PDF) (Individual Tropical Cyclone Reports). Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 14 December 2012. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  8. ^ [4]
  9. ^ "Darwin, NT: Cyclone". Archived from the original on 2012-04-02. Retrieved 2013-04-22.

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